Generating Facies Probabilities by Integrating Spatial and Frequency Analyses

  • Y. Z. Ma


Facies analysis typically focuses on geological descriptions and physical characteristics of deposits. It has typically been emphasized in exploration and appraisal, including prospect generation and reservoir delineation. Facies modeling can be useful in both exploration and field development. In practice, because of limited core and well-log-derived facies data, there have been disconnects between facies analysis and modeling, which can lead to a geologically unrealistic model. It is important to integrate facies analysis into facies modeling for field development.

This chapter presents generations of facies spatial propensity maps, vertical propensity curves and integrated facies analysis using geological conceptual models. The generation of facies probabilities by integrating their fieldwide descriptions and local data at wells is instrumental in bridging the gap between facies analysis and modeling for building realistic facies models.


  1. Bloch A. (1991). The complete Murphy’s law: A definitive collection, Rev. Edn. Los Angeles: Price Stern Sloan.Google Scholar
  2. Ma, Y. Z. (2009). Propensity and probability in depositional facies analysis and modeling. Mathematical Geosciences, 41, 737–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ma, Y. Z., Seto A., & Gomez, E. (2008). Frequentist meets spatialist: A marriage made in reservoir characterization and modeling: SPE 115836, SPE ATCE, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  4. Ma, Y. Z., Seto, A., & Gomez, E. (2009). Depositional facies analysis and modeling of Judy Creek reef complex of the Late Devonian Swan Hills, Alberta, Canada. AAPG Bulletin, 93(9), 1235–1256. Scholar
  5. Matheron, G. (1989). Estimating and choosing – An essay on probability in practice. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Middleton, G. V. (1973). Johannes Walther’s Law of the correlation of facies. GSA Bulletin, 84(3), 979–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Mitchum, R. M., Vail, P. R., & Thompson, S., III. (1977). Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level: Part 2. The depositional sequence as a basic unit for stratigraphic analysis. AAPG Memoir, 26, 53–62.Google Scholar
  8. Moore, C. H. (2001). Carbonate Reservoirs: Porosity evolution and diagenesis in a sequence stratigraphic framework. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 444p.Google Scholar
  9. Popper, K. R. (1995). A world of propensities, Reprinted, Bristol Thoemmes, 51p.Google Scholar
  10. Schlager, W. (1992). Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of reefs and carbonate platforms (AAPG continuing education course notes series) (Vol. 34). Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 71p.Google Scholar
  11. Tucker, M. E., & Wright, V. P. (1990). Carbonate sedimentology. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 482p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Vail, P. R., & Mitchum, R. M. (1977). Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level: Part 1. Overview. In Seismic stratigraphy – Applications to hydrocarbon exploration (AAPG Memoir 26). Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.Google Scholar
  13. Wendte, J., & Uyeno, T. (2005). Sequence stratigraphy and evolution of middle to upper Devonian Beaverhill Lake strata, south-central Alberta. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology., v, 53(3), 250–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wilson, J. L. (1975). Carbonate facies in geological history. New York: Springer. 471p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Z. Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.SchlumbergerDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations