Elbow and Forearm

  • Waleed A. Hassan
  • Mohammed A. Mortada


The elbow joint is completely cartilaginous at birth, and the appearance of secondary ossification centers around the elbow follows a consecutive manner with a variability in skeletal maturity from one child to another. This implies a possible superiority of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) to plain radiography due to its ability of direct visualization of hyaline cartilage. In this chapter, we review normal ultrasonographic anatomical landmarks and examination techniques of pediatric elbow and forearm. We also review common MSUS pathological findings in various conditions such as synovitis, fractures, bursitis, and enthesitis.


Pediatric elbow Musculoskeletal ultrasound Pulled elbow Elbow synovitis Elbow fractures 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waleed A. Hassan
    • 1
  • Mohammed A. Mortada
    • 2
  1. 1.Benha UniversityBanhaEgypt
  2. 2.Zagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

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