Upper limb: Shoulder and Arm

  • Clara MalattiaEmail author
  • Stefano Lanni
  • Federico Zaottini
  • Carlo Martinoli


The shoulder is one of the most complex joints in the body. Ultrasound represents a valuable imaging modality to obtain a comprehensive depiction of the main anatomical structure of the shoulder, including joint recesses, bursae, ligaments, muscles, and tendons. Furthermore, it allows dynamic scanning during joint motion and muscle contraction and assists in guiding minimally invasive interventional procedures. A sound knowledge of its anatomy and the use of a proper scanning technique are essential to perform an accurate shoulder examination with ultrasound.

The spectrum of pathologies potentially affecting the shoulder is quite different in the children age group compared to adults. This chapter describes the ultrasound anatomy and the most common pathologies of the shoulder, which are of interest to pediatric rheumatologists. Special emphasis will be placed to distinguish normal anatomy from imaging pitfalls related to skeletal maturation.


Shoulder anatomy Glenohumeral joint Shoulder tendons Scanning technique Juvenile idiopathic arthritis 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clara Malattia
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Stefano Lanni
    • 3
  • Federico Zaottini
    • 4
    • 5
  • Carlo Martinoli
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Clinica Pediatrica e Reumatologia, Istituto Giannina GasliniGenoaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Riabilitazione, Oftalmologia, Genetica e Scienze Materno-InfantiliUniversità degli studi di GenovaGenoaItaly
  3. 3.Reumatologia Pediatrica, Clinica de Marchi, IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore PoliclinicoMilanItaly
  4. 4.Division of Radiology Ospedale Policlinico San MartinoGenoaItaly
  5. 5.Department of Health ScienceUniversity of GenovaGenoaItaly

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