Standardized Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in Pediatric Rheumatology: (normal Age-Related Ultrasound Findings)

  • Paz Collado
  • Esperanza Naredo


Objective. Musculoskeletal (MS) ultrasound (US) is increasingly being used as an extension of paediatric clinical practice, particularly in the clinical management of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). MSUS is most commonly used in the assessment of effusion and synovial hypertrophy and detection of soft tissue disorders. It can also be used to visualise other structures, such as hyaline cartilage and bone surfaces. Given the unique anatomy of the growing skeleton, many of the difficulties encountered in its use result from misinterpretation of MSUS images. Thus, a detailed knowledge of anatomy in healthy children, both in B-mode and Doppler mode, is mandatory. Additionally, as US is the most operator-dependent imaging modality, the experience and expertise of the examiner will determine the value of the diagnostic information obtained from this technique. Incorrect acquisition and interpretation of images may result in inappropriate disease management. Thus, a systematic scanning method and a standardised evaluation procedure are essential in children.

The chapter shows a brief description of the components of the paediatric healthy joint and a systematic method for ultrasound examination of the paediatric population.


Musculoskeletal ultrasound Standardisation Joint anatomy Paediatric rheumatology 



Juvenile idiopathic arthritis


Second metacarpophalangeal joint


Musculoskeletal ultrasound


Outcome Measures in Rheumatology


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paz Collado
    • 1
  • Esperanza Naredo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Rheumatology, Transitional Care ClinicHospital Universitario Severo OchoaMadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of Rheumatology, Bone and Joint Research UnitHospital Universitario Fundación Jiménez Díaz, IIS-FJD, UAMMadridSpain

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