Univariate Data Analysis

  • Thomas Cleff


Let us return to our students from the previous chapter. After completing their survey of bread spreads, they have now coded the data from the 850 respondents and entered them into a computer. In the first step of data assessment, they investigate each variable—for example, average respondent age—separately. This is called univariate analysis (see Fig. 3.1). By contrast, when researchers analyse the relationship between two variables—for example, between gender and choice of spread—this is called bivariate analysis (see Chap.  4). With relationships between more than two variables, one speaks of multivariate analysis (see Sect.  9.5 and Chaps.  10,  12, and  13).


  1. Bamberg, G., Bauer, F. und Krapp, M. (2012). Statistik, 13th Edition. Munich: Oldenbourg.Google Scholar
  2. Herfindahl, O. (1950). Concentration in the U.S. Steel Industry, Dissertation. New York: Columbia University.Google Scholar
  3. Krämer, W. (2015). So lügt man mit Statistik, 17th Edition, Frankfurt/Main: Campus.Google Scholar
  4. Krämer, W. (2008). Statistik verstehen. Eine Gebrauchsanweisung, 8th Edition. Munich, Zurich: Piper.Google Scholar
  5. Schwarze, J. (2008). Aufgabensammlung zur Statistik, 6th Edition. Herne and Berlin: nwb.Google Scholar
  6. Swoboda, H. (1971). Exakte Geheimnisse: Knaurs Buch der modernen Statistik. Munich, Zurich: Knaur.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Cleff
    • 1
  1. 1.Pforzheim Business SchoolPforzheim University of Applied SciencesPforzheimGermany

Personalised recommendations