Date Palm as a Potential Candidate for Environmental Remediation

  • Jaskiran Kaur
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 38)


The water bodies are under continuous stress conditions owing to water pollution, and this problem is increasing continuously in line with industrialization. Consequently, utmost attention is needed to embark upon pollution problems so as to fulfil the dream of sustainable development. In the present era, adsorption has been considered as an efficient method for the removal of suspended and dissolved pollutants from the water resources. It has been confirmed that among the various types of bioadsorbents, date palm emerged as a highly cost-efficient and biodegradable bioadsorbent. A number of recent reports signified the role of date palm as a bioadsorbent. The present review is exploring the use of different by-products of date palm as adsorbent as well as a precursor to activated carbon production. Herein, an in-depth analysis of the role of date palm in the environmental remediation, in terms of removal of different pollutants, viz. dyes, heavy metals and toxins, has been examined.


Industrialization Water pollution Adsorption Date palms Adsorption characteristics 


  1. Abdulkarim M, Al-Rub FA (2004) Adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solution onto activated carbon and chemically-modified activated carbon prepared from date pits. Adsorp Sci Technol 22(2):119–134. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdulkarim MA, Darwish NA, Magdy YM, Dwaidar A (2002) Adsorption of phenolic compounds and methylene blue onto activated carbon prepared from date fruit pits. Eng Life Sci 2(6):161–165.<161::AID-ELSC161>3.0.CO;2-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad MA, Alrozi R (2011) Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution using rambutan peel-based activated carbon: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 171(2):510–516. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad T, Danish M, Rafatullah M, Ghazali A, Sulaiman O, Hashim R, Ibrahim MNM (2012) The use of date palm as a potential adsorbent for wastewater treatment: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19(5):1464–1484. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akpor OB, Muchie M (2011) Environmental and public health implications of wastewater quality. Afr J Biotechnol 10(13):2379–2387. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aksu Z, Yener J (2001) A comparative adsorption/biosorption study of mono-chlorinated phenols onto various sorbents. Waste Manag 21(8):695–702. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Albadarin AB, Charara M, Abu Tarboush BJ et al (2017) Mechanism analysis of tartrazine biosorption onto masau stones; a low cost by-product from semi-arid regions. J Mol Liq. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aldawsari A, Khan MA, Hameed BH, Alqadami AA, Siddiqui MR, Alothman ZA, Ahmed AYBH (2017) Mercerized mesoporous date pit activated carbon-A novel adsorbent to sequester potentially toxic divalent heavy metals from water. PLoS One 12(9):1–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Al-Ghamdi A, Altaher H, Omar W (2013) Application of date palm trunk fibers as adsorbents for removal of Cd+ 2 ions from aqueous solutions. J Water Reuse Desalin 3(1):47–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Al-Ghouti MA, Li J, Salamh Y, Al-Laqtah N, Walker G, Ahmad MN (2010) Adsorption mechanisms of removing heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solution using date pits solid adsorbent. J Hazard Mater 176(1–3):510–520. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Al-Haidary AMA, Zanganah FH, Al-Azawi SR, Khalili FI, Al-Dujaili AH (2011) A study on using date palm fibers and leaf base of palm as adsorbents for Pb (II) ions from its aqueous solution. Water Air Soil Pollut 214(1–4):73–82. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alhamed YA (2006) Activated carbon from dates’ stone by ZnCl2 activation. JKAU Eng Sci 17(2):5–100. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Alhamed YA (2009) Adsorption kinetics and performance of packed bed adsorber for phenol removal using activated carbon from dates’ stones. J Hazard Mater 170(2–3):763–770. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Al-Jlil SA (2010) Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater by adsorption using local bentonite clay and roasted date pits in Saudi Arabia. Trends Appl Sci Res 5(2):138–145. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Al-Othman ZA, Ali R, Naushad M (2012) Hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous medium by activated carbon prepared from peanut shell: adsorption kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 184:238–247. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Alqadami AA, Naushad M, Abdalla MA et al (2017) Efficient removal of toxic metal ions from wastewater using a recyclable nanocomposite: a study of adsorption parameters and interaction mechanism. J Clean Prod. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Alshabanat M, Alsenani G, Almufarij R (2013) Removal of crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions onto date palm fiber by adsorption technique. J Chem 2013:1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Alshabanat M, Al-Mufarij RS, Al-Senani GM (2016) Study on adsorption of malachite green by date palm fiber. Orient J Chem 32(6):3139–3144. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Alzahrani E, El-Mouhty NRA (2016) Preparation of activated carbon from date palm trunks for removal of eosin dye. J Adv Chem 12(9):2540–2550. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Amin MT, Alazba AA, Amin MN (2017) Absorption behaviours of copper, lead, and arsenic in aqueous solution using date palm fibres and orange peel: kinetics and thermodynamics. Pol J Environ Stud 26(2):543–557. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Banat F, Al-Asheh S, Al-Rousan D (2002) A comparative study of copper and zinc ion adsorption on to activated and non-activated date-pits. Adsorp Sci Technol 20(4):319–335. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Banat F, Al-Asheh S, Al-Makhadmeh L (2003a) Kinetics and equilibrium study of cadmium ion sorption onto date pits- an agricultural waste. Adsorp Sci Technol 21(3):245–260. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Banat F, Al-Asheh S, Al-Makhadmeh L (2003b) Evaluation of the use of raw and activated date pits as potential adsorbents for dye containing waters. Process Biochem 39(2):193–202. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Banat F, Al-Asheh S, Makhadmeh L (2003c) Preparation and examination of activated carbons from date pits impregnated with potassium hydroxide for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. Adsorp Sci Technol 21(6):597–606. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Banat F, Al-Asheh S, Al-Makhadmeh L (2004) Utilization of raw and activated date pits for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions. Chem Eng Technol 27(1):80–86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Belala Z, Jeguirim M, Belhachemi M, Addoun F, Trouve G (2011a) Biosorption of copper from aqueous solutions by date stones and palm-trees waste. Environ Chem Lett 9(1):65–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Belala Z, Jeguirim M, Belhachemi M, Addoun F, Trouve G (2011b) Biosorption of basic dye from aqueous solutions by date stones and palm-trees waste: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Desalination 271(1–3):80–87. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Belhachemi M, Belala Z, Lahcene D, Addoun F (2009) Adsorption of phenol and dye from aqueous solution using chemically modified date pits activated carbons. Desalin Water Treat 7(1–3):182–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bhattacharyya KG, Gupta SS (2008) Adsorption of a few heavy metals on natural and modified kaolinite and montmorillonite: a review. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 140(2):114–131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bhattacharyya P, Chakrabarti K, Chakraborty A, Tripathy S, Powell MA (2008) Fractionation and bioavailability of Pb in municipal solid waste compost and Pb uptake by rice straw and grain under submerged condition in amended soil. Geosci J 12(1):41–45. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bratskaya SY, Pestov AV, Yatluk YG, Avramenko VA (2009) Heavy metals removal by flocculation/precipitation using N-(2-carboxyethyl) chitosans. Colloid Surf 339(1–3):140–144. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chang Q, Zhang M, Wang J (2009) Removal of Cu2+ and turbidity from wastewater by mercapto acetyl chitosan. J Hazard Mater 169(1–3):621–625. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chaouch N, Ouahrani MR, Chaouch S, Gherraf N (2013) Adsorption of cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions by activated carbon produced from Algerian dates stones of Phoenix dactylifera by H3PO4 activation. Desalin Water Treat 51(10–12):2087–2092. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chaouch N, Ouahrani MR, Laouini SE (2014) Adsorption of Lead (II) from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon prepared from Algerian dates stones of Phoenix dactylifera. L (Ghars variety) by H3PO4 activation. Orient J Chem 30(3):1317–1322. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dialynas E, Diamadopoulos E (2009) Integration of a membrane bioreactor coupled with reverse osmosis for advanced treatment of municipal wastewater. Desalination 238(1–3):302–311. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. El Nemr A, Khaled A, Abdelwahab O, El-Sikaily A (2008) Treatment of wastewater containing toxic chromium using new activated carbon developed from date palm seed. J Hazard Mater 152(1):263–275. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. El Samrani AG, Lartiges BS, Villieras F (2008) Chemical coagulation of combined sewer overflow: heavy metal removal and treatment optimization. Water Res 42(4–5):951–960. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. El-Sharkawy EA, Soliman AY, Al-Amer KM (2007) Comparative study for the removal of methylene blue via adsorption and photocatalytic degradation. J Colloid Interface Sci 310(2):498–508. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Eynard F, Mez K, Walther JL (2000) Risk of cyanobacterial toxins in Riga waters (Latvia). Water Res 34(11):2979–2988. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fu F, Wang Q (2011) Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review. J Environ Manag 92(3):407–418. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Garg VK, Kumar R, Gupta R (2004) Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution by adsorption using agro-industry waste: a case study of Prosopis cineraria. Dyes Pigments 62(1):1–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ghasemi M, Naushad M, Ghasemi N, Khosravi-fard Y (2014) A novel agricultural waste based adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution: kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. J Ind Eng Chem 20:454–461. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Haleem AM, Abdulgafoor EA (2010) The biosorption of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution using date palm fibers (leef). Al-Khwarizmi Eng J 6(4):31–36Google Scholar
  44. Hall DW, Sandrin JA, McBride RE (1990) An overview of solvent extraction treatment technologies. Environ Prog 9(2):98–105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hamid MA (2011) Growth and heavy metals uptake by date palm grown in mono-and dual culture in heavy metals contaminated soil. World Appl Sci J 15(3):429–435Google Scholar
  46. Hilal NM, Ahmed IA, El-Sayed RE (2012) Activated and nonactivated date pits adsorbents for the removal of copper (II) and cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions. ISRN Phys Chem 2012:1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jamil F, Al-Muhtaseb AH, Naushad M et al (2016) Evaluation of synthesized green carbon catalyst from waste date pits for tertiary butylation of phenol. Arab J Chem.
  48. Jibril B, Houache O, Al-Maamari R, Al-Rashidi B (2008) Effects of H3PO4 and KOH in carbonization of lignocellulosic material. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 83(2):151–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ku Y, Jung IL (2001) Photocatalytic reduction of Cr (VI) in aqueous solutions by UV irradiation with the presence of titanium dioxide. Water Res 35(1):135–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Landaburu-Aguirre J, Pongracz E, Perämaki P, Keiski RL (2010) Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration for the removal of cadmium and zinc: use of response surface methodology to improve understanding of process performance and optimisation. J Hazard Mater 180(1–3):524–534. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Macedo JS, Otubo L, Ferreira OP, de Fátima Gimenez I, Mazali IO, Barreto LS (2008) Biomorphic activated porous carbons with complex microstructures from lignocellulosic residues. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 107(3):276–285. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mahdi Z, El Hanandeh A, Yu Q (2017) Date seed derived biochar for Ni (II) removal from aqueous solutions. In: MATEC web of conferences EDP sciences, p 05005Google Scholar
  53. Mahdi Z, Qiming JY, El Hanandeh A (2018) Removal of lead (II) from aqueous solution using date seed-derived biochar: batch and column studies. Appl Water Sci 8(6):181. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mahmood S, Maqbool A (2006) Impacts of wastewater irrigation on water quality and on the health of local Community in Faisalabad. Pak J Water Resour 10:19–22Google Scholar
  55. Mahmoodi NM, Hayati B, Arami M (2010) Textile dye removal from single and ternary systems using date stones: kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies. J Chem Eng Data 55(11):4638–4649. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mane SM, Vanjara AK, Sawant MR (2005) Removal of phenol from wastewater using date seed carbon. J Chin Chem Soc 52(6):1117–1122. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mittal A, Naushad M, Sharma G et al (2016) Fabrication of MWCNTs/ThO2 nanocomposite and its adsorption behavior for the removal of Pb(II) metal from aqueous medium. Desalin Water Treat 57:21863–21869. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mohebbi A (2012) Capability of heavy metals absorption by corn, alfalfa and sunflower intercropping date palm. Adv Environ Biol 6(11):2886–2893Google Scholar
  59. Mohebbi AH, Harutyunyan SS, Chorom M (2012) Phytoremediation potential of three plant grown in monoculture and intercropping with date palm in contaminated soil. Intl J Agric Crop Sci 4(20):1523–1530Google Scholar
  60. Mohsen-Nia M, Montazeri P, Modarress H (2007) Removal of Cu2+ and Ni2+ from wastewater with a chelating agent and reverse osmosis processes. Desalination 217(1–3):276–281. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mouni L, Merabet D, Bouzaza A, Belkhiri L (2010) Removal of Pb2+ and Zn2+ from the aqueous solutions by activated carbon prepared from dates stone. Desalin Water Treat 16(1–3):66–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Murthy ZVP, Chaudhari LB (2008) Application of nanofiltration for the rejection of nickel ions from aqueous solutions and estimation of membrane transport parameters. J Hazard Mater 160(1):70–77. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nataraj SK, Hosamani KM, Aminabhavi TM (2007) Potential application of an electrodialysis pilot plant containing ion-exchange membranes in chromium removal. Desalination 217(1–3):181–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Naushad M, ALOthman ZA (2015) Separation of toxic Pb2+ metal from aqueous solution using strongly acidic cation-exchange resin: analytical applications for the removal of metal ions from pharmaceutical formulation. Desalin Water Treat 53(8):2158–2166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Naushad M, Ahamad T, Sharma G et al (2016a) Synthesis and characterization of a new starch/SnO2 nanocomposite for efficient adsorption of toxic Hg2+ metal ion. Chem Eng J 300:306–316. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Naushad M, Khan MR, ALOthman ZA, AAH A-M, Awual MR, Alqadami AA (2016b) Water purification using cost effective material prepared from agricultural waste: kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies. CLEAN–Soil Air Water 44(8):1036–1045. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Naushad M, Ahamad T, Al-Maswari BM et al (2017) Nickel ferrite bearing nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon as efficient adsorbent for the removal of highly toxic metal ion from aqueous medium. Chem Eng J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nwakonobi TU, Onoja SB, Ogbaje H (2018) Removal of certain heavy metals from brewery wastewater using date palm seeds activated carbon. Appl Eng Agric 34(1):233–238. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ostroski IC, Barros MA, Silva EA, Dantas JH, Arroyo PA, Lima OC (2009) A comparative study for the ion exchange of Fe (III) and Zn (II) on zeolite NaY. J Hazard Mater 161(2–3):1404–1412. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Papic S, Koprivanac N, Metes A (2000) Optimizing polymer-induced flocculation process to remove reactive dyes from wastewater. Environ Technol 21(1):97–105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sagasta MJ, Sally LR, Thebo A (2015) Global wastewater and sludge production, treatment and use. In: Drechsel P, Qadir M, Wichelns D (eds) Wastewater: economic asset in an urbanizing world. Springer, New York, pp 15–24Google Scholar
  72. Shafiq M, Alazba AA, Amin MT (2018) Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using date palm as a biosorbent: a comparative review. Sains Malays 47(1):35–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shagufta, Dhar R, Kim BS, Alblooshi A, Ahmad I (2018) Removal of synthetic cationic dye from aqueous solution using date palm leaf fibers as an adsorbent. Intern J Eng Technol 7(4):3770–3776. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sulyman M, Namiesnik J, Gierak A (2016) Adsorptive removal of aqueous phase crystal violet dye by low-cost activated carbon obtained from date palm (L.) dead leaflets. Inżynieria i Ochrona Środowiska 19(4):611–631. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Suzuki Y, Maezawa A, Uchida S (2000) Utilization of ultrasonic energy in a photocatalytic oxidation process for treating waste water containing surfactants. Jpn J Appl Phys 39(5S):2958–2961. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tang ZX, Shi LE, Aleid SM (2013) Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products. J Sci Food Agric 93(10):2351–2361. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Terry PA (2010) Application of ozone and oxidation to reduce chemical oxygen demand and hydrogen sulfide from a recovered paper processing plant. Int J Chem Eng 2010:1–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Welch EB (1992) Ecological effects of wastewater: applied limnology and pollutant effects, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Yao H, Xu J, Huang C (2003) Substrate utilization pattern, biomass and activity of microbial communities in a sequence of heavy metal-polluted paddy soils. Geoderma 115(1–2):139–148. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaskiran Kaur
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Earth SciencesCentral University of PunjabBathindaIndia

Personalised recommendations