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Adsorption of Pharmaceutical Pollutants Using Lignocellulosic Materials

  • Atul Sharma
  • Saif Ali Chaudhry
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 38)

Abstract

Water contamination through drug disposal is a prominent problem as it has harsh consequences on food chains. Over 100,000 tonnes of pharmaceutical products are consumed globally every year, and during their manufacture, use and disposal, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) as well as other chemical ingredients are released into the environment. Dry plant matter is called lignocellulosic biomass which is easily available in abundance on the Earth’s surface and is composed of carbohydrate polymers (hemicellulose, cellulose) and aromatic polymer (lignin). These polymeric carbohydrates contain different sugar monomers bounded tightly to lignin. Recently, great attention has been paid to remove pharmaceutical pollutants for which various treatment methods are known including both advanced (e.g. membrane, microfiltration, ozonation) and conventional (e.g. adsorption, biodegradation, activated sludge) processes. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the removal of pharmaceuticals using adsorption from wastewater using lignocellulosic materials. Adsorption capacity of various adsorbents from various sources have been reviewed for their capacity to remove pharmaceuticals from water. There are numerous adsorbents including most commonly used carbonaceous materials, clays and polymeric and siliceous materials. The adsorption capacity of various lignocellulosic materials for pharmaceutical removal from water is discussed in this chapter. The mechanism for adsorption of pharmaceuticals onto lignocellulosic adsorbents is also discussed herein.

Keywords

Adsorption capacity Adsorbents Water treatment Pharmaceuticals 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atul Sharma
    • 1
  • Saif Ali Chaudhry
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of ChemistryJamia Millia IslamiaNew DelhiIndia

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