Adsorptive Removal of Toxic Dyes Using Chitosan and Its Composites

  • Swati Verma
  • Raj Kumar DuttaEmail author
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 38)


Adsorption is considered to be one of the most efficient and cost-effective processes for the removal of pollutants including dyes from polluted water bodies. Wide range of materials is being studied for removing dye molecules that impart colour to water. Chitosan has emerged as a low-cost, non-toxic, biodegradable and easily available option for removing dye molecules by adsorption. The functional groups in chitosan, e.g. the hydroxyl and the amino groups, are responsible for the adsorption of cationic as well as anionic dyes. Here we have discussed some of the significant cases of cationic and anionic dye adsorption by chitosan. Broadly, chitosan-based adsorbent can be categorized as (a) grafted and cross-linked chitosan to enhance adsorption capacity and also to impart superior mechanical stability so that the adsorbent can be used in harsh condition and (b) composites with wide range of materials, e.g. clay, carbon materials, other polymers and metal oxides. Further sizes and morphologies, e.g. sphere, beads, nanofibres, have effects on the adsorption capacities. In addition, the scope for adsorptive photocatalytic dye degradation has been discussed. For this purpose, ZnO–chitosan nanocomposite is taken as a model adsorbent cum photocatalyst for removing Congo red anionic dye, where chitosan facilitated adsorption while ZnO favoured dye degradation.


Chitosan Composites Dye Adsorption 


  1. Abdou ES, Nagy KS, Elsabee MZ (2008) Extraction and characterization of chitin and chitosan from local sources. Bioresour Technol 99(5):1359–1367. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed MJ (2016) Application of agricultural based activated carbons by microwave and conventional activations for basic dye adsorption. J Environ Chem Eng 4(1):89–99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akar ST, San E, Akar T (2016) Chitosan–alunite composite: an effective dye remover with high sorption, regeneration and application potential. Carbohydr Polym 143:318–326. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albadarin AB, Collins MN, Naushad M et al (2017) Activated lignin-chitosan extruded blends for efficient adsorption of methylene blue. Chem Eng J 307:264–272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alhwaige AA, Agag T, Ishida H, Qutubuddin S (2013) Biobased chitosan hybrid aerogels with superior adsorption: role of graphene oxide in CO2 capture. RSC Adv 3(36):16011–16020. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Annadurai G (2002) Adsorption of basic dye on strongly chelating polymer: batch kinetics studies. Iran Polym J 11(4):237–244Google Scholar
  7. Ansari F, Sobhani A, Salavati-Niasari M (2016) Green synthesis of magnetic chitosan nanocomposites by a new sol–gel auto-combustion method. J Magn Magn Mater 410:27–33. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Auta M, Hameed BH (2013) Coalesced chitosan activated carbon composite for batch and fixed-bed adsorption of cationic and anionic dyes. Colloid Surf B 105:199–206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Auta M, Hameed BH (2014) Chitosan–clay composite as highly effective and low-cost adsorbent for batch and fixed-bed adsorption of methylene blue. Chem Eng J 237:352–361. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bekçi Z, Özveri C, Seki Y, Yurdakoç K (2008) Sorption of malachite green on chitosan bead. J Hazard Mater 154(1–3):254–261. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhatti HN, Jabeen A, Iqbal M, Noreen S, Naseem Z (2017) Adsorptive behavior of rice bran-based composites for malachite green dye: isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J Mol Liq 237:322–333. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhumkar DR, Pokharkar VB (2006) Studies on effect of pH on cross-linking of chitosan with sodium tripolyphosphate: a technical note. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 7(2):E138–E143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cestari AR, Vieira EF, Dos Santos AG, Mota JA, de Almeida VP (2004) Adsorption of anionic dyes on chitosan beads. 1. The influence of the chemical structures of dyes and temperature on the adsorption kinetics. J Colloid Interface Sci 280(2):380–386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang MY, Juang RS (2004) Adsorption of tannic acid, humic acid, and dyes from water using the composite of chitosan and activated clay. J Colloid Interface Sci 278(1):18–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chatterjee S, Chatterjee S, Chatterjee BP, Das AR, Guha AK (2005) Adsorption of a model anionic dye, eosin Y, from aqueous solution by chitosan hydrobeads. J Colloid Interface 288(1):30–35. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen X, He L (2017) Microwave irradiation assisted preparation of chitosan composite microsphere for dye adsorption. Int J Polym Sci 2017:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen Y, Chen L, Bai H, Li L (2013) Graphene oxide–chitosan composite hydrogels as broad-spectrum adsorbents for water purification. J Mater Chem A 1:1992–2001. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chequer FMD, de Oliveira GAR, Ferraz ERA, Cardoso JC, Zanoni MVB, de Oliveira DP (2013) Textile dyes: dyeing process and environmental impact. In: Eco-friendly textile dyeing and finishing. InTech, Rijeka. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chiou MS, Chuang GS (2006) Competitive adsorption of dye metanil yellow and RB15 in acid solutions on chemically cross-linked chitosan beads. Chemosphere 62(5):731–740. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chiou MS, Li HY (2002) Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of adsorption of reactive dye on cross-linked chitosan beads. J Hazard Mater 93(2):233–248. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chiou MS, Li HY (2003) Adsorption behavior of reactive dye in aqueous solution on chemical cross-linked chitosan beads. Chemosphere 50(8):1095–1105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chiou MS, Kuo WS, Li HY (2003) Removal of reactive dye from wastewater by adsorption using ECH cross-linked chitosan beads as medium. J Environ Sci Health A 38(11):2621–2631. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Christie RM (2001) Colour chemistry. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crini G (2005) Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Prog Polym Sci 30(1):38–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crini G (2006) Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. Bioresour Technol 97(9):1061–1085. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crini G, Badot PM (2008) Application of chitosan, a natural aminopolysaccharide, for dye removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption processes using batch studies: a review of recent literature. Prog Polym Sci 33(4):399–447. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dabrowski A (2001) Adsorption – from theory to practice. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 93(1–3):135–224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Daneshvar E, Vazirzadeh A, Niazi A et al (2017) Desorption of Methylene blue dye from brown macroalga: effects of operating parameters, isotherm study and kinetic modeling. J Clean Prod 152:443–453. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. De Aragão Umbuzeiro G, Freeman H, Warren SH, Kummrow F, Claxton LD (2005) Mutagenicity evaluation of the commercial product CI Disperse Blue 291 using different protocols of the Salmonella assay. Food Chem Toxicol 43:49–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. dos Anjos FS, Vieira EF, Cestari AR (2002) Interaction of indigo carmine dye with chitosan evaluated by adsorption and thermochemical data. J Colloid Interface Sci 253(2):243–246. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dotto GL, Rodrigues FK, Tanabe EH, Fröhlich R, Bertuol DA, Martins TR, Foletto EL (2016) Development of chitosan/bentonite hybrid composite to remove hazardous anionic and cationic dyes from colored effluents. J Environ Chem Eng 4(3):3230–3239. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dutta RK, Nenavathu BP, Gangishetty MK, Reddy AVR (2012) Studies on antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles for ROS induced lipid peroxidation. Colloid Surface B 94:143–150. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dutta RK, Shaida MA, Singla K, Das, D (2019) Highly efficient adsorptive removal of uranyl ions by a novel graphene oxide reduced by adenosine 5ʹ-monophosphate. J Mater Chem A 7:664–678. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fahmy HM, Mohamed ZE, Abo-Shosha MH, Ibrahim NA (2004) Thermosole cross-linking of chitosan and utilization in the removal of some dyes from aqueous solution. Polym-Plast Technol 43(2):445–462. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fan L, Luo C, Li X, Lu F, Qiu H, Sun M (2012a) Fabrication of novel magnetic chitosan grafted with graphene oxide to enhance adsorption properties for methyl blue. J Hazard Mater 215:272–279. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fan L, Luo C, Sun M, Li X, Lu F, Qiu H (2012b) Preparation of novel magnetic chitosan/graphene oxide composite as effective adsorbents toward methylene blue. Bioresour Technol 114:703–706. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fujishima A, Zhang X, Tryk DA (2008) TiO2 photocatalysis and related surface phenomena. Surf Sci Rep 63(12):515–582. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Guibal E (2004) Interactions of metal ions with chitosan-based sorbents: a review. Sep Purif Technol 38(1):43–74. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guibal E, Roussy J (2007) Coagulation and flocculation of dye-containing solutions using a biopolymer (Chitosan). React Funct Polym 67(1):33–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guibal E, McCarrick P, Tobin JM (2003) Comparison of the sorption of anionic dyes on activated carbon and chitosan derivatives from dilute solutions. Sep Sci Technol 38(12–13):3049–3073. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Guibal E, Touraud E, Roussy J (2005) Chitosan interactions with metal ions and dyes: dissolved-state vs. solid-state application. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 21(6–7):913–920. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gul K, Sohni S, Waqar M, Ahmad F, Norulaini NAN, Mohd Omar AK (2016) Functionalization of magnetic chitosan with graphene oxide for removal of cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous solution. Carbohydr Polym 152:520–531. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guo J, Chen S, Liu L, Li B, Yang P, Zhang L, Feng Y (2012) Adsorption of dye from wastewater using chitosan–CTAB modified bentonites. J Colloid Interface Sci 382(1):61–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gupta VK (2009) Application of low-cost adsorbents for dye removal – a review. J Environ Manag 90(8):2313–2342. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Haldorai Y, Shim JJ (2014) An efficient removal of methyl orange dye from aqueous solution by adsorption onto chitosan/MgO composite: a novel reusable adsorbent. Appl Surf Sci 292:447–453. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Haldorai Y, Kharismadewi D, Tuma D, Shim JJ (2015) Properties of chitosan/magnetite nanoparticles composites for efficient dye adsorption and antibacterial agent. Korean J Chem Eng 32(8):1688–1693. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hanh PTB, An NT, Nhi TTY, Thuy TTT, Vu DA, Thanh NT, Thanh TD, Thien DT (2007) Sorption studies of an azo dye on cross-linked chitosan from aqueous solutions. J Chem 45(6):318–323Google Scholar
  48. Hu ZG, Zhang J, Chan WL, Szeto YS (2006) The sorption of acid dye onto chitosan nanoparticles. Polymer 47(16):5838–5842. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huang XY, Bin JP, Bu HT, Jiang GB, Zeng MH (2011) Removal of anionic dye eosin Y from aqueous solution using ethylenediamine modified chitosan. Carbohydr Polym 84(4):1350–1356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jaworska M, Sakurai K, Gaudon P, Guibal E (2003) Influence of chitosan characteristics on polymer properties. I: Crystallographic properties. Polym Int 52(2):198–205. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jayakumar R, Prabaharan M, Reis RL, Mano J (2005) Graft copolymerized chitosan—present status and applications. Carbohydr Polym 62(2):142–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jayaswal K, Sahu V, Gurjar BR (2018) Water pollution, human health and remediation. In: Bhattacharya S, Gupta A, Gupta A, Pandey A (eds) Water remediation. Energy, environment, and sustainability. Springer, Singapore. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jiang Y, Liu B, Xu J, Pan K, Hou H, Hu J, Yang J (2018) Cross-linked chitosan/β-cyclodextrin composite for selective removal of methyl orange: adsorption performance and mechanism. Carbohydr Polym 182:106–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jóźwiak T, Filipkowska U, Szymczyk P, Zyśk M (2017) Effect of the form and deacetylation degree of chitosan sorbents on sorption effectiveness of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solutions. Int J Biol Macromol 95:1169–1178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kamari A, Ngah WW, Chong MY, Cheah ML (2009) Sorption of acid dyes onto GLA and H2SO4 cross-linked chitosan beads. Desalination 249(3):1180–1189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kim CY, Choi HM, Cho HT (1997) Effect of deacetylation on sorption of dyes and chromium on chitin. J Appl Polym Sci 63(6):725–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kim TY, Park SS, Cho SY (2012) Adsorption characteristics of reactive black 5 onto chitosan beads cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. J Ind Eng Chem 18(4):1458–1464. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kumar MNVR (2000) A review of chitin and chitosan applications. React Funct Polym 46(1):1–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kumar M, Dosanjh HS, Singh H (2018) Magnetic zinc ferrite–chitosan bio-composite: synthesis, characterization and adsorption behavior studies for cationic dyes in single and binary systems. J Inorg Organomet Polym 28(3):880–898. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kyaw TT, Wint KS, Naing KM (2011) Studies on the sorption behavior of dyes on cross-linked chitosan beads in acid medium. In: International conference on biomedical engineering and technologyGoogle Scholar
  61. Kyzas GZ, Kostoglou M, Vassiliou AA, Lazaridis NK (2011) Treatment of real effluents from dyeing reactor: experimental and modeling approach by adsorption onto chitosan. Chem Eng J 168(2):577–585. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kyzas GZ, Lazaridis NK, Kostoglou M (2013) On the simultaneous adsorption of a reactive dye and hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions onto grafted chitosan. J Colloid Interface Sci 407:432–441. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lee SH, Ha Y, Kim BY, Kim BS (2014) Properties of cellulase immobilized on chitosan beads. KSBB J 29(4):239–243. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Li L, Hsieh YL (2006) Chitosan bicomponent nanofibers and nanoporous fibers. Carbohydr Res 341(3):374–381. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Li CG, Wang F, Peng WG, He YH (2013) Preparation of chitosan and epichlorohydrin cross-linked adsorbents and adsorption property of dyes. Appl Mech Mater 423:584–587. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Li Y, Sun J, Du Q, Zhang L, Yang X, Wu S, Xia Y, Wang Z, Xia L, Cao A (2014) Mechanical and dye adsorption properties of graphene oxide/chitosan composite fibers prepared by wet spinning. Carbohydr Polym 102:755–761. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Li C, Lou T, Yan X, Long YZ, Cui G, Wang X (2018a) Fabrication of pure chitosan nanofibrous membranes as effective absorbent for dye removal. Int J Biol Macromol 106:768–774. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Li Y, Gao H, Wang C, Zhang X, Zhou H (2018b) One-step fabrication of chitosan-Fe (OH)3 beads for efficient adsorption of anionic dyes. Int J Biol Macromol 117:30–41. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Liu B, Zeng HC (2003) Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods in the diameter regime of 50 nm. J Am Chem Soc 125(15):4430–4431. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Liu C, Bai R, Nan L (2004) Sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) crosslinked chitosan membranes and application in humic acid removal. In: American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Proceedings of the annual meetingGoogle Scholar
  71. Liu Q, Yang B, Zhang L, Huang R (2015) Adsorption of an anionic azo dye by cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite. Int J Biol Macromol 72:1129–1135. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Liu K, Chen L, Huang L, Lai Y (2016) Evaluation of ethylenediamine-modified nanofibrillated cellulose/chitosan composites on adsorption of cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous solution. Carbohydr Polym 151:1115–1119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maghami GG, Roberts GA (1988) Studies on the adsorption of anionic dyes on chitosan. Macromol Chem Phys 189(10):2239–2243. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McCloskey BD, Ju H, Freeman BD (2009) Composite membranes based on a selective chitosan− poly (ethylene glycol) hybrid layer: synthesis, characterization, and performance in oil−water purification. Ind Eng Chem Res 49(1):366–373. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mello RS, Bedendo GC, Nome F, Fiedler HD, Laranjeira MC (2006) Preparation of chitosan membranes for filtration and concentration of compounds under high pressure process. Polym Bull 56(4–5):447–454. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mirmohseni A, Dorraji MS, Figoli A, Tasselli F (2012) Chitosan hollow fibers as effective biosorbent toward dye: preparation and modeling. Bioresour Technol 121:212–220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morais WA, de Almeida AL, Pereira MR, Fonseca JL (2008) Equilibrium and kinetic analysis of methyl orange sorption on chitosan spheres. Carbohydr Res 343(14):2489–2493. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moura JM, Gründmann DD, Cadaval TR Jr, Dotto GL, Pinto LA (2016) Comparison of chitosan with different physical forms to remove Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solutions. J Environ Chem Eng 4(2):2259–2267. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Naseeruteen F, Hamid NS, Suah FB, Ngah WS, Mehamod FS (2018) Adsorption of malachite green from aqueous solution by using novel chitosan ionic liquid beads. Int J Biol Macromol 107:1270–1277. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Naushad M, Abdullah ALOthman Z, Rabiul Awual M, Alfadul SM, Ahamad T (2016) Adsorption of rose Bengal dye from aqueous solution by amberlite Ira-938 resin: kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic studies. Desalin Water Treat 57(29):13527–13533. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nenavathu BP, Rao AK, Goyal A, Kapoor A, Dutta RK (2013) Synthesis, characterization and enhanced photocatalytic degradation efficiency of Se doped ZnO nanoparticles using trypan blue as a model dye. Appl Catal A Gen 459:106–113. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nenavathu BP, Kandula S, Verma S (2018) Visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of safranin-T dye using functionalized graphene oxide nanosheet (FGS)/ZnO nanocomposites. RSC Adv 8(35):19659–19667. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ngah WW, Teong LC, Hanafiah MA (2011) Adsorption of dyes and heavy metal ions by chitosan composites: a review. Carbohydr Polym 83(4):1446–1456. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. No HK, Meyers SP (2000) Application of chitosan for treatment of wastewaters. In: Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Springer, New York, pp 1–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pathania D, Gupta D, Al-Muhtaseb AH et al (2016) Photocatalytic degradation of highly toxic dyes using chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/ZnS in presence of solar irradiation. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 329:61–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pietrelli L, Francolini I, Piozzi A (2015) Dyes adsorption from aqueous solutions by chitosan. Sep Sci Technol 50:1101–1107. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pinheiro HM, Touraud E, Thomas O (2004) Aromatic amines from Azo dye reduction: status review with emphasis on direct UV spectrophotometric detection in textile industry wastewaters. Dyes Pigments 61:121–139. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rafatullah M, Sulaiman O, Hashim R, Ahmad A (2010) Adsorption of methylene blue on low-cost adsorbents: a review. J Hazard Mater 177(1–3):70–80. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rajaguru P, Fairbairn LJ, Ashby J, Willington MA, Turner S, Woolford LA, Chinnasamy N, Rafferty JA (1999) Genotoxicity studies on the Azo dye Direct Red 2 using the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 444:175–180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Raval NP, Shah PU, Ladha DG, Wadhwani PM, Shah NK (2016) Comparative study of chitin and chitosan beads for the adsorption of hazardous anionic azo dye Congo Red from wastewater. Desalin Water Treat 57(20):9247–9262. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Reddy DH, Lee SM (2013) Application of magnetic chitosan composites for the removal of toxic metal and dyes from aqueous solutions. Adv Colloid Interface 201–202:68–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sadrolhosseini AR, Naseri M, Rashid SA (2017) Polypyrrole-chitosan/nickel-ferrite nanoparticle composite layer for detecting heavy metal ions using surface plasmon resonance technique. Opt Laser Technol 93:216–223. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Saha TK, Bhoumik NC, Karmaker S, Ahmed MG, Ichikawa H, Fukumori Y (2010) Adsorption of methyl orange onto chitosan from aqueous solution. J Water Resour Prot 2:898–906. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Salehi E, Daraei P, Shamsabadi AA (2016) A review on chitosan-based adsorptive membranes. Carbohydr Polym 152(5):419–432. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schiffman JD, Schauer CL (2007) One-step electrospinning of cross-linked chitosan fibers. Biomacromolecules 8(9):2665–2667. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schwarzenbach RP, Egli T, Hofstetter TB, Von Gunten U, Wehrli B (2010) Global water pollution and human health. Annu Rev Environ Resour 35:109–136. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Shahat A, Awual MR, Khaleque MA et al (2015) Large-pore diameter nano-adsorbent and its application for rapid lead(II) detection and removal from aqueous media. Chem Eng J 273:286–295. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Shajahan A, Shankar S, Sathiyaseelan A, Narayan KS, Narayanan V, Kaviyarasan V, Ignacimuthu S (2017) Comparative studies of chitosan and its nanoparticles for the adsorption efficiency of various dyes. Int J Biol Macromol 104(1):1449–1458. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sharma A, Dutta RK (2015) Studies on the drastic improvement of photocatalytic degradation of acid orange-74 dye by TPPO capped CuO nanoparticles in tandem with suitable electron capturing agents. RSC Adv 5(54):43815–43823. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sharma G, Naushad M, Pathania D et al (2015) Modification of Hibiscus cannabinus fiber by graft copolymerization: application for dye removal. Desalin Water Treat 54:3114–3121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sharma G, Naushad M, Al-Muhtaseb AH et al (2017) Fabrication and characterization of chitosan-crosslinked-poly(alginic acid) nanohydrogel for adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) metal ion from aqueous medium. Int J Biol Macromol 95:484–493. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sheng G, Zhu S, Wang S, Wang Z (2016) Removal of dyes by a novel fly ash–chitosan–graphene oxide composite adsorbent. RSC Adv 6(22):17987–17994. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Shi C, Lv C, Wu L, Hou X (2017) Porous chitosan/hydroxyapatite composite membrane for dyes static and dynamic removal from aqueous solution. J Hazard Mater 338:241–249. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Shimizu Y, Taga A, Yamaoka H (2003) Synthesis of novel crosslinked chitosans with a higher fatty diacid diglycidyl and their adsorption abilities towards acid dyes. Adsorpt Sci Technol 21(5):439–449. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tan IA, Ahmad AL, Hameed BH (2008) Adsorption of basic dye on high-surface-area activated carbon prepared from coconut husk: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J Hazard Mater 154(1–3):337–346. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Travlou NA, Kyzas GZ, Lazaridis NK, Deliyanni EA (2013) Graphite oxide/chitosan composite for reactive dye removal. Chem Eng J 217:256–265. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Verma S, Dutta RK (2015) A facile method of synthesizing ammonia modified graphene oxide for efficient removal of uranyl ions from aqueous medium. RSC Adv 5(94):77192–77203. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Verma S, Dutta RK (2017a) Development of cysteine amide reduced graphene oxide (CARGO) nano-adsorbents for enhanced uranyl ions removal from aqueous medium. J Environ Chem Eng 5(5):4547–4558. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Verma S, Dutta RK (2017b) Enhanced ROS generation by ZnO-ammonia modified graphene oxide nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of trypan blue dye and 4-nitrophenol. J Environ Chem Eng 5(5):4776–4787. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wang L, Wang A (2007) Adsorption characteristics of Congo Red onto the chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposite. J Hazard Mater 147(3):979–985. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wang Y, Wang H, Peng H, Wang Z, Wu J, Liu Z (2018) Dye adsorption from aqueous solution by cellulose/chitosan composite: equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics. Fibre Polym 19(2):340–349. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wong YC, Szeto YS, Cheung WH, McKay G (2003) Equilibrium studies for acid dye adsorption onto chitosan. Langmuir 19(19):7888–7894. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wong YC, Szeto YS, Cheung WH, McKay G (2008) Effect of temperature, particle size and percentage deacetylation on the adsorption of acid dyes on chitosan. Adsorption 14(1):11–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yoshida H, Fukuda S, Okamoto A, Kataoka T (1991) Recovery of direct dye and acid dye by adsorption on chitosan fiber–equilibria. Water Sci Technol 23(7–9):1667–1676. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yoshida H, Okamoto A, Kataoka T (1993) Adsorption of acid dye on cross-linked chitosan fibers: equilibria. Chem Eng Sci 48(12):2267–2272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhang Y, Yan T, Yan L, Guo X, Cui L, Wei Q, Du B (2014) Preparation of novel cobalt ferrite/chitosan grafted with graphene composite as effective adsorbents for mercury ions. J Mol Liq 198:381–387. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhang L, Hu P, Wang J, Huang R (2016a) Adsorption of Amido Black 10B from aqueous solutions onto Zr (IV) surface-immobilized cross-linked chitosan/bentonite composite. Appl Surf Sci 369:558–566. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhang L, Zeng Y, Cheng Z (2016b) Removal of heavy metal ions using chitosan and modified chitosan: a review. J Mol Liq 214:175–191. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhou L, Liu J, Liu Z (2009) Adsorption of platinum (IV) and palladium (II) from aqueous solution by thiourea-modified chitosan microspheres. J Hazard Mater 172(1):439–446. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zhou L, Jin J, Liu Z, Liang X, Shang C (2011) Adsorption of acid dyes from aqueous solutions by the ethylenediamine-modified magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. J Hazard Mater 185(2–3):1045–1052. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zhou Z, Lin S, Yue T, Lee TC (2014) Adsorption of food dyes from aqueous solution by glutaraldehyde cross-linked magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. J Food Eng 126:133–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zhu HY, Jiang R, Xiao L, Li W (2010) A novel magnetically separable γ-Fe2O3/crosslinked chitosan adsorbent: preparation, characterization and adsorption application for removal of hazardous azo dye. J Hazard Mater 179(1–3):251–257. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations