Environmental Issues: A Challenge for Wastewater Treatment

  • Meenakshi Choudhary
  • C. N. Peter
  • Sudheesh K. Shukla
  • Penny P. GovenderEmail author
  • Girish M. Joshi
  • Rui Wang
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 38)


In the present era, wastewater treatment is a challenging issue for living organism and biophysical environment. According to United Nation (UN) Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), climate change is not just a distant future treat, it is the main driver behind rising humanitarian need, and we are seeing its impact. Either there is a lot of environmental issue, but wastewater treatment is one of the main environmental issues for the twenty-first century. Wastewater challenges not only depend on legislations for controlled effluent but also on socioeconomic condition as well as regional characteristics. In this scenario, it is difficult to categorize a common reason to all these situations. In a note, there is a need for implementation of cost-effective and high-performance waste treatment system, and public awareness is of importance. Improper treatment of wastewater from industries and houses before disposal poses severe environmental as well as health issues to the surrounding communities. In this book chapter, we are highlighting several treatment techniques and approaches which have been developed and applied in making sure that these wastewaters are properly treated before being discharged into the environment.


Wastewater treatment Water crisis Environmental issue Wastewater management 



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial contribution from the Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, and National Research Foundation (TTK14052167682).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meenakshi Choudhary
    • 1
  • C. N. Peter
    • 2
  • Sudheesh K. Shukla
    • 2
    • 3
  • Penny P. Govender
    • 2
    Email author
  • Girish M. Joshi
    • 4
  • Rui Wang
    • 3
  1. 1.Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental and Energy Research, Blaustein Institutes for Desert ResearchBen-Gurion University of the NegevBeershebaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Applied Chemistry, Doornfontein Campus 2028University of JohannesburgJohannesburgSouth Africa
  3. 3.School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Engineering Physics and Engineering MaterialsInstitute of Chemical Technology (ICT)JalnaIndia

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