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Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

  • Joshua S. Catapano
  • Michael T. LawtonEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is blood in the subarachnoid space that is most commonly caused by trauma but, on occasion, can occur spontaneously without injury. Nontraumatic SAH is a rare cause of stroke that is often due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms cause great morbidity and mortality, leading to life-altering effects. An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) must be treated by open surgery (most often via clipping) or endovascularly (most often via coiling). After the initial treatment, physiological complications often develop including vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, seizures, and hydrocephalus, among other pathologies inherent to critically ill patients. All of these manifestations are treated in a multimodal manner by multiple specialties. Although with the advent of modern medicine aSAH management and outcomes have improved, future research is necessary to determine the best management regimen for each patient.

Keywords

Subarachnoid hemorrhage Aneurysm Treatment Coiling Clipping Angiography Endovascular Headache Intracranial Stroke 

Abbreviations

aSAH

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

BRAT

Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial

CT

Computed tomography

DCI

Delayed cerebral ischemia

ISAT

International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial

SAH

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the staff of Neuroscience Publications at Barrow Neurological Institute for assistance with manuscript preparation.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryBarrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical CenterPhoenixUSA

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