Thoracolumbar Spine Trauma

  • Eugene Warnick
  • Sheena Amin
  • Mayan Lendner
  • Joseph S. Butler
  • Alexander R. VaccaroEmail author


Thoracolumbar fractures account for nearly 90% of all spinal fractures and are typically acquired through high-energy trauma most commonly in young- to middle-aged males. These fractures may be associated with spinal cord injury requiring the assessment of neurological function via the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS). Several classification systems (the AO Classification System, the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification System, and the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Injury Classification System) have been developed to provide a common language, elucidate severity, and help guide treatment decisions in the management of these injuries. Notable thoracolumbar injuries include burst fractures, chance fractures, thoracolumbar fracture-dislocations, osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, and cauda equina syndrome. This chapter provides a brief overview of the various classification systems used as well as the associated findings on imaging and the current recommendations and evidence available regarding the treatment of these common thoracolumbar injuries.


Thoracolumbar Aneurysm Spine Angiography Trauma Endovascular Fracture Headache Intracranial Stroke 



The authors would like to acknowledge Alex Vaccaro IV, a research assistant at the Rothman Orthopaedic Institute, for his work on the illustrations used in this chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene Warnick
    • 1
  • Sheena Amin
    • 2
  • Mayan Lendner
    • 3
  • Joseph S. Butler
    • 4
  • Alexander R. Vaccaro
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Thomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Drexel University College of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Rothman Orthopaedic InstitutePhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.National Spinal Injuries Unit, Department of Trauma & Orthopaedic SurgeryMater Misericordiae University HospitalDublinIreland

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