Traumatic Brain Injury Overview and Practice Parameters

  • James W. Bales
  • Louis J. KimEmail author


Few pathologic entities have as much of an impact both clinically and socioeconomically as traumatic brain injury (TBI). From mild concussions to severe brain injury, the spectrum of TBI encompasses a complex interplay of systemic and central nervous system pathology. TBI can be thought of as the most complex injury to the most complex system and represents a challenge for practitioners of all levels. Current and past research in TBI has been aimed at understanding the pathophysiology of injury and providing meaningful clinical tools to combating injury. The goal of this chapter is to provide a basic framework and understanding of the complexities facing practitioners treating TBI.


Traumatic brain injury Closed head injury Intracranial hypertension Subdural hematoma Epidural hematoma Skull fracture Penetrating injury 



Brain trauma foundation


Cerebral blood flow


Cerebral perfusion pressure


Cerebrospinal fluid


Computed tomography


Computed tomography angiography


Diffuse axonal injury


Diffusion tensor imaging


Deep venous thrombosis


Diffusion weighted imaging


Epidural hematoma




External ventricular drain


Glasgow coma scale


Gunshot wound


Intracranial pressure


Intraparenchymal hemorrhage


Low molecular weight heparin


Magnetic resonance imaging


Pulmonary embolism


Systolic blood pressure


Sport concussion assessment tool


Subdural hematoma


Single photon emission computed tomography


Susceptibility weighted imaging


Traumatic brain injury


Transcranial Doppler


Venous thrombotic events

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, Harborview Medical CenterUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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