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Traumatic Brain Injury Overview and Practice Parameters

  • James W. Bales
  • Louis J. KimEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Few pathologic entities have as much of an impact both clinically and socioeconomically as traumatic brain injury (TBI). From mild concussions to severe brain injury, the spectrum of TBI encompasses a complex interplay of systemic and central nervous system pathology. TBI can be thought of as the most complex injury to the most complex system and represents a challenge for practitioners of all levels. Current and past research in TBI has been aimed at understanding the pathophysiology of injury and providing meaningful clinical tools to combating injury. The goal of this chapter is to provide a basic framework and understanding of the complexities facing practitioners treating TBI.

Keywords

Traumatic brain injury Closed head injury Intracranial hypertension Subdural hematoma Epidural hematoma Skull fracture Penetrating injury 

Abbreviations

BTF

Brain trauma foundation

CBF

Cerebral blood flow

CPP

Cerebral perfusion pressure

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

CT

Computed tomography

CTA

Computed tomography angiography

DAI

Diffuse axonal injury

DTI

Diffusion tensor imaging

DVT

Deep venous thrombosis

DWI

Diffusion weighted imaging

EDH

Epidural hematoma

EEG

Electroencephalography

EVD

External ventricular drain

GCS

Glasgow coma scale

GSW

Gunshot wound

ICP

Intracranial pressure

IPH

Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

LMWH

Low molecular weight heparin

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

PE

Pulmonary embolism

SBP

Systolic blood pressure

SCAT

Sport concussion assessment tool

SDH

Subdural hematoma

SPECT

Single photon emission computed tomography

SWI

Susceptibility weighted imaging

TBI

Traumatic brain injury

TCD

Transcranial Doppler

VTE

Venous thrombotic events

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurosurgery, Harborview Medical CenterUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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