Brain tumors are a group of neoplasms that arise from the constituent cells of the brain (primary tumors) or from systemic tumors that have spread to the brain (brain metastasis). They account for approximately 2% of all cancers. Combined with other CNS tumors, they are the most lethal cause of cancer in children. In people older than 40 years, brain and CNS tumors have a mortality of 8.89 per 100,000. The WHO classification divides brain tumors into 17 groups and more than 100 subtypes using histological and genetic features. Brain tumors may cause clinical manifestations due the local mass effect, perilesional edema, brain invasion, and increased intracranial pressure. A thorough medical history, neurological examination, and diagnostic neuroimaging are fundamental for the proper patient work-up. Surgery is performed in almost all cases when patient has a clinical stable condition and is usually followed by chemo-, radio-, and more recently immunotherapy.
KeywordsBrain tumors Oncology WHO classification Epidemiology Metastasis
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