Cranial deformities are a common complaint in pediatric units, since 25% of infants of single pregnancies and 50% of multiple pregnancies have some degree of skull deformity at birth. It is of fundamental importance that physician be prepared at first consultation to make the differential diagnosis between a positional deformity and craniosynostosis, considering that children born with positional deformity does not need to be exposed to the ionizing radiation of a computed tomography (CT), apart from the costs of the procedure and the sedation risks to achieve it. In this chapter, we review the anatomy and physiology of normal skull development of children, discussing nuances related to nomenclature, epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of the most common forms of craniosynostosis. The clinical criteria for the differential diagnosis between positional deformities and craniosynostosis are also presented.
KeywordsCraniosynostosis Craniostenosis Scaphocephaly Surgery
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