Tethered Cord Syndrome

  • Enrico Ghizoni
  • João Paulo Sant’Ana Santos de Souza
  • Dominic N. P. Thompson


Tethered cord syndrome is a clinical condition characterized by signs and symptoms secondary to conus medullaris dysfunction and abnormally low spinal cord, resulting in functional alterations of motor and sensitive neurons due to conus or spinal cord traction. It usually presents as a neuro-orthopedic syndrome with neurological, orthopedic, and urological symptoms and signs. The main pathologies related to tethered cord syndrome are congenital due to spinal dysraphism. We present a didactic and simplified view of key embryological processes related and describe the most common causes of tethered cord syndrome and its management.


Spinal dysraphism Occult Myelomeningocele Lipoma Spina bifida 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enrico Ghizoni
    • 1
  • João Paulo Sant’Ana Santos de Souza
    • 2
  • Dominic N. P. Thompson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery DivisionUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Neuroimaging, Department of NeurologyUniversity of CampinasSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Department of NeurosurgeryGreat Ormond Street Hospital for ChildrenLondonEngland

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