Taqwā or Reflective Conscience in the Qur’ān and Some Additional Epistemic Virtues

  • M. Ashraf Adeel
Part of the Sophia Studies in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Traditions and Cultures book series (SCPT, volume 29)


This chapter carries out an analysis of the Qur’ānic verses that pertain to the concept of taqwā in order to understand the Qur’ānic conception of virtue. It is argued that taqwā appears to be a comprehensive reflective and motivational conscience comparable to similar concepts in Kant and Butler. However, taqwā covers both the moral and epistemic spheres of human life and is constitutive of virtue in general. The chapter discusses the ways taqwā, as a stable acquired disposition for virtue built upon our natural capacity to distinguish right from wrong, is related to specific intellectual virtues that flow from it. Taqwā as the general disposition for virtue functions as a pivot for all specific epistemic and moral virtues. After identifying the basic features of taqwā, the chapter examines additional verses of the Qur’ān to highlight some additional intellectual virtues. The chapter closes by noting the concept of virtue and an overall list of intellectual virtues.


taqwā or reflective conscience Stable acquired disposition Intellectual virtues 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Ashraf Adeel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyKutztown University of PennsylvaniaKutztownUSA

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