Advertisement

(Re)Producing Class. On Development as Middle Class Mission

  • Anna RomanowiczEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Agreeing on the main thesis of development as peculiar form of enchantment, the author identifies and explores the reasons for development’s enchanting powers. She argues that development is an important tool for middle-class upgrading and/or maintaining its dominant position over lower classes. First, she presents shifting meanings of development that occurred with neoliberalization policies and changes within women’s studies. Second, she discusses the role of middle class in these processes. Lastly, she argues that ineffectiveness of development activities lies in deep interest of this class.

References

  1. Alvarez, S. (1999). Advocating Feminism: The Latin American Feminist NGO ‘Boom’. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 1(2), 181–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Batiwala, S. (2010). Taking the Power Out of Empowerment—An Experiential Account. In A. Cornwall & D. Eade (Eds.), Deconstructing Development Discourse: Buzzwords and Fuzzwords. Rugby, UK: Practical Action.Google Scholar
  3. Baviskar, A., & Ray, R. (Eds.). (2011). Elite and Everyman: The Cultural Politics of the Indian Middle Classes. Routledge: New Delhi.Google Scholar
  4. Boserup, E. (1970). Woman’s Role in Economic Development. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bourdieu, P. (1990). The Logic of Practice. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Chambers, R. (1995). NGOs and Development: The Primacy of The Personal. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  7. Chatterjee, P. (1989). Colonialism, Nationalism, and Colonialized Women: The Contest in India. American Ethnologist, 16(4), 622–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Desai, N. (2008). From Accommodation to Articulation: Women’s Movement in India. In L. Dube, E. Leacock, & S. Ardener (Eds.). (1986). Visibility and Power: Essays on Women in Society and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press; In M. E. John (Ed.), Women’s Studies in India: A Reader. New Delhi: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  9. Deshpande, S. (1997). From Development to Adjustment: Economic Ideologies, the Middle Class and 50 Years of Independence. Review of Development and Change, 2(2), 294–318.Google Scholar
  10. Deshpande, S. (2003). Contemporary India: A Sociological View. Viking: New Delhi.Google Scholar
  11. Edwards, M., & Hulme, D. (1996). Non-governmental Organizations Performance and Accountability: Beyond the Magic Bullet. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  12. Escobar, A. (1995). Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Ferguson, J. (1990). The Anti-Politics Machine: “Development,” Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  14. Fernandes, L. (2006). India’s New Middle Class Democratic Politics in An Era of Economic Reform. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  15. Fernandes, L. (2011). Hegemony and Inequality: Theoretical Reflections on India’s ‘New’ Middle Class. In A. Baviskar & R. Ray (Eds.), Elite and Everyman: The Cultural Politics of the Indian Middle Classes. New Delhi: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Fisher, W. F. (1997). Doing Good? The Politics and Antipolitics of NGO Practices. Annual Review of Anthropology, 26(1), 439–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Forbes, G. H. (2008). Women in Modern India. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Gangoli, G. (2008). Immorality, Hurt and Choice: Indian Feminists and Prostitution. In R. Sahni, V. K. Shankar, & H. Apte (Eds.), Prostitution and Beyond: An Analysis of Sex Workers in India. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Green, M. (2000). Participatory Development and the Appropriation of Agency in Southern Tanzania. Critique of Anthropology, 20(1), 67–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gupta, A. (2012). Red Tape: Bureaucracy, Structural Violence, and Poverty in India. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harvey, D. (1990). The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Orgins of Cultural Change. Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  22. Heaton Shrestha, C. (2006). “They Can’t Mix Like We Can”: Bracketing Differences and the Professionalization of NGOs in Nepal. In D. Lewis & D. Mosse (Eds.), Development Brokers and Translators: The Ethnography of Aid and Agencies. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  23. Heron, B. A. (1999). Desire for Development: The Education of White Women as Development Workers (PhD thesis). University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  24. Hyatt, S. B. (2001). From Citizen to Volunteer: Neoliberal Governance and the Erasure of Poverty. In J. Goode & J. Maskovsky (Eds.), New Poverty Studies: The Ethnography of Power, Politics, and Impoverished People in the United States. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Jakimow, T., & Kilby, P. (2006). Empowering Women: A Critique of the Blueprint for Self-Help Groups in India. Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 13(3), 375–400.Google Scholar
  26. Kamat, S. (2002). Development Hegemony: NGOs and The State in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Korten, D. (1987). Third Generation NGO strategies: A Key to People-Centered Development. World Development, 15(1), 145–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lamont, M., & Lareau, A. (1988). Cultural Capital: Allusions, Gaps and Glissandos in Recent Theoretical Developments. Sociological Theory, 6(2), 153–168.Google Scholar
  29. Lardinois, R., & Thapan, M. (2006). Reading Pierre Bourdieu in a Dual Context: Essays from India and France. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Lawson, V. (2011). Decentring Poverty Studies: Middle Class Alliances and The Social Construction of Poverty. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 33(11), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leve, L. G. (2001). Between Jesse Helms and Ram Bahadur: Participation and Empowerment in Women’s Literacy Programming in Nepal. PoLAR: Political Legal Anthropology Review, 24(1), 108–128.Google Scholar
  32. Lewis, D., & Mosse, D. (Eds.). (2006). Development Brokers and Translators: The Ethnography of Aid and Agencies. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  33. Liechty, M. (2003). Suitably Modern: Making Middle-Class Culture in a New Consumer Society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Long, N. (2001). Development Sociology: Actor Perspectives. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Long, N., & Long, A. (1992). Battlefields of Knowledge: The Interlocking of Theory and Practice in Social Research and Development. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Mander, H. (2015). Looking Away. Inequality, Prejudice and Indifference in New India. New Delhi: Speaking Tiger.Google Scholar
  37. Menon, N. (1999). Gender and Politics in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Nehru, J. (1947/2007). A Tryst With Destiny. Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2007/may/01/greatspeeches. Accessed on January 2018.
  39. Olivier de Sardan, J.-P. (2005). Anthropology and Development: Understanding Contemporary Social Change. London and New York: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  40. Omvedt, G. (2011). Women’s Movement: Some Ideological Debates. In M. Chaudhuri (Ed.), Feminism in India. London: Zed.Google Scholar
  41. Radhakrishnan, S. (2011). Gender, the IT Revolution and Making of a Middle-Class India. In A. Baviskar & R. Ray (Eds.), Elite and Everyman: The Cultural Politics of the Indian Middle Classes. New Delhi: Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Rahnema, M. (1992). Participation. In W. Sachs (Ed.), The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  43. Rai, S. (2008). The Gender Politics of Development Essays in Hope and Despair. New Delhi: Zubaan.Google Scholar
  44. Romanowicz, A. (2017). Unintended Revolution: Middle Class, Development and Non-governmental Organizations. Kraków: Jagiellonian University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Saavala, M. (2010). Middle-Class Moralities: Everyday Struggle Over Belonging and Prestige in India. New Delhi: Orient Blackswan.Google Scholar
  46. Sarkar, S., & Sarkar, T. (2007). Women and Social Reform in Modern India: A Reader. Ranikhet: Permanent Black.Google Scholar
  47. Sen, S. (1999). Some Aspects of State–NGO Relationships in India in the Post-Independence Era. Development and Change, 30(2), 327–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sharma, A. (2008). Logics of Empowerment Development, Gender, and Governance in Neoliberal India. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  49. Sillitoe, P., Bicker, A., & Pottier, J. (2002). Participating in Development: Approaches to Indigenous Knowledge. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sinha, N. (2007). Empowerment of Women Through Political Participation. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications.Google Scholar
  51. Tambe, A. (2008). Different Issues/Different Voices: Organization of Women in Prostitution in India. In R. Sahni, V. K. Shankar, & Apte, H (Eds.), Prostitution and Beyond an Analysis of Sex Workers in India. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. Upadhya, C. (2011). Software and the ‘New’ Middle Class in the ‘New India’. In A. Baviskar & R. Ray (Eds.), Elite and Everyman: The Cultural Politics of the Indian Middle Classes. New Delhi: Routledge.Google Scholar
  53. van Aaken, D., Splitter, V., & Seidl, D. (2013). Why Do Corporate Actors Engage in Pro-social Behaviour? A Bourdieusian Perspective on Corporate Social Responsibility Organization, 20, 349–371.Google Scholar
  54. Van Ardenne, A. (2004). From Exclusive to Inclusive Development. In M. Spoor (Ed.), Globalisation, Poverty and Conflict: A Critical “Development” Reader. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  55. Varma, P. K. (2007). The Great Indian Middle Class. Delhi: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  56. Williams, G. (2004). Evaluating Participatory Development: Tyranny, Power and (Re)Politicisation. Third World Quarterly, 25(3), 557–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ethnology and Cultural AnthropologyJagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland

Personalised recommendations