Advertisement

Luminaires

  • Wout van Bommel
Chapter

Abstract

The light distribution of a luminaire defines how the luminous flux of that luminaire is distributed in various directions. The luminous intensity table is the digital form of the light distribution of a luminaire. It is the basic input for all lighting calculation software. To facilitate a quick preselection of suitable luminaires for a particular application, the polar luminous intensity diagram, the utilisation factor table and the UGR table of the luminaires considered are indispensable. The polar diagram gives insight into which directions the light is radiated. The utilisation factor and UGR table give insight into, respectively, the efficiency and the degree of glare of a particular luminaire type used for the lighting of rooms of different dimensions and room surface reflectances.

The optical system of a luminaire may make use of mirrors (reflectors), micro lenses (refractors) and diffusers. These possibilities of shaping the light of a luminaire are used in both gas-discharge lamp and LED luminaires. With the introduction of LEDs, another possibility, that of total internal reflection (TIR), can also be used to produce precisely controlled beams.

The thermal characteristics of a luminaire influence light output, colour quality and lifetime. Lifetime of LED modules (not in the luminaire) has been discussed in Chap.   11 . Having the LED module in a luminaire reduces its lifetime, particularly because of temperature effects. Methods of predicting LED luminaire life, based on measurement durations considerably less than the predicted life, are discussed.

References

  1. CIE (1978) Calculations for interior lighting: basic method. Technical Report CIE 40-1978Google Scholar
  2. CIE (1982) Calculations for interior lighting: applied method. Technical Report CIE 52-1982Google Scholar
  3. CIE (1995) Discomfort glare in interior lighting. Technical Report CIE 117-1995Google Scholar
  4. CIE (2010) Calculation and presentation of unified glare rating tables for indoor lighting luminaires. Technical Report CIE 190:2010Google Scholar
  5. CIE (2011) CIE Standard S017/E:2011 International Lighting VocabularyGoogle Scholar
  6. Coaton JR, Marsden AM (1997) Lamps and lighting, 4th edn. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Geyer U, Hellwig A, Hessling T, Hübner MC (2018) Application of multiple Cartesian novel method for glass lens design. Proceedings Spie 10693. Illumination Optics V, 1069308Google Scholar
  8. Hessling T (2012) Glass optics for LED applications. LED Prof Rev 32:2–4Google Scholar
  9. IEC (2015) IEC 62717 edition 1.1. LED modules for general lighting—performance requirementsGoogle Scholar
  10. IES (2008) LM-80-08. Approved method: measuring lumen maintenance of LED light sourcesGoogle Scholar
  11. IES (2011a) TM-21-11. Projecting long term lumen maintenance of LED light sourcesGoogle Scholar
  12. IES (2011b) In: Dilaura DL, Houser KW, Mistrick RG, Steffy GR (eds) The lighting handbook, 10th edn. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. IES (2014) TM-28-14. Projecting long-term luminous flux maintenance of LED lamps and luminairesGoogle Scholar
  14. Jansen J (1954) Beleuchtungstechnik Band I Grundlagen. Philips Technische BibliothekGoogle Scholar
  15. Lassane CJM, Poppe A (eds) (2014) Thermal management for LED applications. Springer, New York, Heidelberg, Dordrecht, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Miñano JC, Benítez P, Santamaría A (2009) Free-form optics for illumination. Opt Rev 16(2):99–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Van Bommel W, De Visser A, Wouters M (1998) Blendung in Innenbeleuchtung, UGR- Söllner-Vergleich und photometrische Darstellung. Tagungsberichte Licht ’98 (Conference of the lighting engineering societies of Germany, Switzerland, Austria and The Netherlands), pp 120–127Google Scholar
  18. Wang K, Liu S, Luo X, Wu D (2017) Freeform optics for LED packages and applications. John Wiley & Sons, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zhu L, Ge A, Hao R, Chen J, Tao X (2018) A Fresnel freeform surface collimating lens for LEDs. Lighting Res Technol 50:952–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wout van Bommel
    • 1
  1. 1.Van Bommel Lighting ConsultantNuenenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations