Advertisement

Teaching Design Innovation Skills: Design Heuristics Support Creating, Developing, and Combining Ideas

  • Shanna R. DalyEmail author
  • Seda McKilligan
  • Keelin Leahy
  • Colleen M. Seifert
Chapter

Abstract

An innovative idea generation process explores a variety of diverse design ideas. While challenging to achieve even for expert designers, support tools can assist designers as they learn to generate more ideas, and more varied ideas, throughout their idea generation process. In this chapter, we summarize evidence identifying Design Heuristics in product design, and describe how they can be employed within a variety of lesson structures to foster idea generation. We describe alternative lesson plans using the 77 Design Heuristics: specifically, in initial idea generation, idea development, generation of subcomponent ideas, and team design. The Design Heuristics have been shown to support learning and innovative design outcomes across educational levels and design disciplines.

Keywords

Design pedagogy Idea generation Innovation tools 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. 1323251 & 1322552.

References

  1. Akin O, Lin C (1995) Design protocol data and novel design decisions. Des Stud 16:211–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen M (1962) Morphological creativity. Prentice-Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  3. Altshuller G (1984) Creativity as an exact science. Gordon and Breach, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  4. Altshuller G (2005) 40 principles: TRIZ keys to technical innovation, extended edn. Technical Innovation Center, Inc., Worchester, MAGoogle Scholar
  5. Altshuller G, Rodman S (1999) The innovation algorithm: TRIZ, systematic innovation and technical creativity. Technical Innovation Center, Worchester, MAGoogle Scholar
  6. Amabile T (1982) Social psychology of creativity: a consensual assessment technique. J Pers Soc Psychol 43(5):997–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Atman CJ, Chimka JR, Bursic KM, Nachtman HL (1999) A comparison of freshman and senior engineering design process. Des Stud 20(2):131–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ball LJ, Evans J, Dennis I (1994) Cognitive processes in engineering design: a longitudinal study. Ergonomics 37(11):1753–1786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ball LJ, Ormerod TC, Morley NJ (2004) Spontaneous analogising in engineering design: a comparative analysis of experts and novices. Des Stud 25(5):495–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Casakin H (2004) Visual analogy as a cognitive strategy in the design process: expert versus novice performance. J Des Res 4(2)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Christian JL, Daly SR, Yilmaz S, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2012) Design heuristics to support two modes of idea generation: initiating ideas and transitioning among concepts. In: Proceedings of the annual conference of the American Society of Engineering Education, San Antonio, Texas. https://peer.asee.org/21152
  12. Cormier P, Literman B, Lewis K (2011) Empirically derived heuristics to assist designers with satisfying consumer variation in product design. Paper presented at the ASME international design engineering technical conferences and computers and information in engineering conference, Washington, DC, 28–31 Aug 2011Google Scholar
  13. Crilly N (2015) Fixation and creativity in concept development: the attitudes and practices of expert designers. Des Stud 38:54–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cross N (2011) Design thinking: understanding how designers think and work. Berg, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dalsgaard P, Dindler C (2014) Between theory and practice: bridging concepts in HCI research. Paper presented at the annual ACM conference on human factors in computing systems, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  16. Daly SR, Christian JL, Yilmaz S, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2011) Teaching design ideation. In: Proceedings of the annual conference of the American Society of Engineering Education, Vancouver, BC. https://peer.asee.org/18507
  17. Daly SR, Christian JL, Yilmaz S, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2012a) Assessing design heuristics for idea generation in an introductory engineering course. Int J Eng Educ 28(2):1–11Google Scholar
  18. Daly SR, Mosyjowski EA, Seifert CM (2014) Teaching creativity in engineering courses. J Eng Edu 103(3):417–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Daly SR, Seifert CM, Yilmaz S, Gonzalez R (2016a) Comparing ideation techniques for beginning designers. J Mech Des 138(10):101108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daly SR, Mosyjowski EA, Seifert, CM (2016b) Teaching creative process across disciplines. J Creative BehavGoogle Scholar
  21. Daly SR, Yilmaz S, Christian JL, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2012b) Design heuristics in engineering concept generation. J Eng Educ 101(4):601–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Daly SR, Yilmaz S, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2010) Cognitive heuristic use in engineering design ideation. In: Proceedings of the annual conference of the American Society for Engineering Education, Louisville, Kentucky. https://peer.asee.org/16280
  23. de Bono E (1999) Six thinking hats. Back Bay BooksGoogle Scholar
  24. Design Heuristics Inc. (2009). www.designheuristics.com
  25. Diehl M, Stroebe W (1987) Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: toward the solution of a riddle. J Pers Soc Psychol 53(3):497–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eberle B (1995) Scamper. Prufrock, Waco, TexasGoogle Scholar
  27. Finke RA, Ward TB, Smith SM (1992) Creative cognition: theory, research, and applications. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  28. Fogler HS, LeBlanc SE (2013) Strategies for creative problem solving, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  29. Geschka H, Schaude GR, Schlicksupp H (1973) Modern techniques for solving problems. Chem Eng 6(80):91–97Google Scholar
  30. Gordon WJJ (1961) Synectics. Harper & Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Gray CM, Yilmaz S, Daly SR, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2015) Supporting idea generation through functional decomposition: an alternative framing for design heuristics. In: Proceedings of the international conference on engineering design, MilanGoogle Scholar
  32. Haldaman J, Parkinson MB (2010) Reconfigurable products and their means of reconfiguration. Paper presented at the ASME international design engineering technical conferences and computers and information in engineering conference, Las Vegas, NevadaGoogle Scholar
  33. Hernandez NV, Schmidt LC, Okudan GE (2013) Systematic ideation effectiveness study of TRIZ. J Mech Des 135(10):101009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Höök K, Löwgren J (2012) Strong concepts: intermediate-level knowledge in interaction design research. ACM Trans Comput Hum Interact (TOCHI) 19(3):23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Klein G (1998) Sources of power: how people make decisions. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  36. Kotys-Schwartz D, Daly SR, Yilmaz S, Knight D, Polmear M (2014) Evaluating the implementation of design heuristic cards in an industry-sponsored capstone design course. In: Proceedings of the annual conference of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), Indianapolis, IN. https://peer.asee.org/20435
  37. Kramer J, Daly SR, Yilmaz S, Seifert CM (2014) A case-study analysis of design heuristics in an upper-level cross-disciplinary design course. In: Proceedings of the annual conference of American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE), Indianapolis, IN. https://peer.asee.org/19915
  38. Kramer J, Daly SR, Yilmaz S, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2015) Investigating the impact of design heuristics on idea initiation and development. Adv Eng Educ 4(4)Google Scholar
  39. Lawson B (1980) How designers think: the design process demystified. Architectural, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  40. Leahy K, Daly SR, Murray J, McKilligan S, Seifert CM (2018a) Transforming early concepts with design heuristics. Int J Technol Des Educ 1–21Google Scholar
  41. Leahy K, Daly SR, McKilligan S, Seifert CM (2018b) Supporting idea generation with design tools: nesting design heuristics within morphological analysis. Global J of Eng Educ 20(3):159–170Google Scholar
  42. Lee JW, Daly SR, Huang-Saad A, Seifert CM, Lutz J (2018) Using design strategies from microfluidic device patents to support idea generation. Microfluidics Nanofluidics 22(70)Google Scholar
  43. Lee JW, Ostrowski A, Daly SR, Huang-Saad A, Seifert CM (2018) Idea generation in biomedical engineering courses using design heuristics. Eur J Eng Educ 1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03043797.2018.1514368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu YC, Bligh T, Chakrabarti A (2003) Towards an ‘ideal’ approach for concept generation. Des Stud 24(4):341–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Newell A, Simon HA (1972) Human problem solving. Prentice-Hall, Englewood, NJGoogle Scholar
  46. Osborn A (1957) Applied imagination: principles and procedures of creative problemsolving. Scribner, NYGoogle Scholar
  47. Perez A, Linsey JS, Tsenn J, Glier M (2011) Identifying product scaling principles: a step towards enhancing biomimetic design. Paper presented at the ASME 2011 international mechanical engineering congress and exposition, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  48. Römer A, Weißhahn G, Hacker W (2001) Effort saving product representations in design—results of a questionnaire survey. Des Stud 22(6):473–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rowatt WC, Nesselroade KP, Beggan JK, Allison ST (1997) Perceptions of brainstorming in groups: the quality over quantity hypothesis. J Creat Behav 31(2):131–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Saunders MN, Seepersad CC, Hölttä-Otto K (2011) The characteristics of innovative mechanical products. J Mech Des 133:021009-021001-021009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Savransky SD (2000) Engineering of creativity: introduction to TRIZ methodology of inventive problem solving. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Seifert CM, Gonzalez R, Yilmaz S, Daly SR (2015) Boosting creativity in idea generation using design heuristics. In: Product Development and Management Association (ed) Design and design thinking: essentials in the PDMA’s new product development series. Wiley, pp 71–86Google Scholar
  53. Singh V, Skiles SM, Krager JE, Wood K, Jensen D, Sierakowski R (2009) Innovations in design through transformation: a fundamental study of transformation principles. J Mech Des 131(8):081010-081011-081018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Singh V, Walther B, Krager JE, Putnam N, Koraishy B, Wood KL, Jensen D (2007) Design for transformation: theory, method and application. Paper presented at the ASME 2007 international design engineering technical conferences and computers and information in engineering conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, 4–7 Sept 2007Google Scholar
  55. Skiles SM, Singh V, Krager JE, Seepersad CC, Wood KL, Jensen D (2006) Adapted concept generation and computational techniques for the application of a transformer design theory. Paper presented at the ASME 2006 international design engineering technical conferences and computers and information in engineering conference, Philadelphia, PA, 10–13 Sept 2006Google Scholar
  56. Smith SM (1995) Fixation, incubation, and insight in memory, problem solving, and creativity. In: Smith SM, Ward TB, Finke RA (eds) The creative cognition approach. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 135–155Google Scholar
  57. Smith GF (1998) Idea-generation techniques: a formulary of active ingredients. J Creat Behav 32(2):107–134MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sutton RI, Hargadon A (1996) Brainstorming groups in context: effectiveness in a product. Adm Sci Q 41:685–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Weaver J, Wood K, Crawford RH, Jensen D (2010) Transformation design theory: a meta-analogical framework. J Comput Inf Sci Eng 10(3):031012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Weaver JM, Wood KL, Jensen D (2008) Transformation facilitators: a quantitative analysis of reconfigurable products and their characteristics. Paper presented at the ASME international design engineering technical conferences and computers and information in engineering conference, Brooklyn, NYGoogle Scholar
  61. Yilmaz S, Christian JL, Daly SR, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2012) How do design heuristics affect design outcomes in industrial design? In: Proceedings of the international design conference, Dubrovnik, CroatiaGoogle Scholar
  62. Yilmaz S, Daly SR, Christian JL, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2013) Can experienced designers learn from new tools? A case study of idea generation in a professional engineering team. Int J Des Creat Innov 2(2):82–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yilmaz S, Daly SR, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2015) How do designers generate new ideas? Design heuristics across two disciplines. Des Sci 1:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yilmaz S, Daly SR, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2016a) Evidence-based design heuristics for idea generation. Des Stud 46:95–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yilmaz S, Seifert CM (2011) Creativity through design heuristics: a case study of expert product design. Des Stud 32(4):384–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yilmaz S, Seifert CM, Daly SR, Gonzalez R (2016) Design strategies in innovative products. J Mech Des 138(7)Google Scholar
  67. Yilmaz S, Seifert CM, Gonzalez R (2010) Cognitive heuristics in design: instructional strategies to increase creativity in idea generation. J Artif Intell Eng Des Anal Manuf 24(3):335–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shanna R. Daly
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seda McKilligan
    • 2
  • Keelin Leahy
    • 3
  • Colleen M. Seifert
    • 4
  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Iowa State UniversityAmesUSA
  3. 3.University of LimerickLimerickIreland
  4. 4.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations