Microbial Bioformulations: Present and Future Aspects

  • Usha Rani
  • Vivek Kumar
Part of the Nanotechnology in the Life Sciences book series (NALIS)


Utilization of microbes for plant growth promotion and inhibition of plant pathogens is not a new concept and is growing slowly, but agricultural products based on microbes are developing gradually. Products based on microbes are available by different names like bioformulations, biopesticides, bioinoculants, bioformulants, biofertilizers, etc. Use of bioformulations is an emerging area in research and development especially for the promotion of plant growth. Bioformulation industry targets toward the inhibition of plant pathogens, promoting plant growth, and helping in enhancing fertility of soil, which helps toward attaining eco-friendly approaches. Usage of harmful chemicals, pesticides, and fertilizers will ultimately lead toward their accumulation and loss of soil fertility. New areas are being explored to eradicate the related constraints. Present research trends focus on refining the concept of bioformulations which are safe, secure, and reliable.


Bioformulation Encapsulation Bioinoculants Biofertilizers Biofilms Azotobacter 


  1. Agro news (2014) Biofertilizers market–global industry analysis, size, share, growth, trends and forecast, 2013–2019. Available online–e.htmGoogle Scholar
  2. Albertsen A, Ravnskov S, Green H, Jensen DF, Larsen J (2006) Interactions between the external mycelium of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices and other soil microorganisms as affected by organic matter. Soil Biol Biochem 38(5):1008–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altieri MA (2004) Linking ecologists and traditional farmers in the search for sustainable agriculture. Front Ecol Environ 2(1):35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Antoun H, Prévost D (2005) Ecology of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In: PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  5. Ardakani MR, Pietsch G, Moghaddam A, Raza A, Friedel JK (2009) Response of root properties to tripartite symbiosis between lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), rhizobia and mycorrhiza under dry organic farming conditions. Am J Agric Biol Sci 4:266–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arora NK, Khare E, Maheshwari DK (2010) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: constrains in bioformulation, commercialization, and future strategies. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Plant growth and health promoting bacteria microbiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Artursson V, Finlay RD, Jansson JK (2006) Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria and their potential for stimulating plant growth. Environ Microbiol 8:61–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barea JM (1997) Mycorrhiza/bacteria interactions on plant growth promotion. In: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, present status and future prospects. OECD, Paris, pp 150–158Google Scholar
  9. Bashan Y, de-Bashan LE, Prabhu SR, Hernandez JP (2014) Advances in plant growth-promoting bacterial inoculant technology: formulations and practical perspectives (1998–2013). Plant Soil 378:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. BCC Research (2010) Biopesticides: the global market report CHM029C, WellesleyGoogle Scholar
  11. Berg G (2009) Plant–microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 84(1):11–18PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berny P (2007) Pesticides and the intoxication of wild animals. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 30:93–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhattacharjee SG, Sharma D (2012) Effect of dual inoculation of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium on the chlorophyll, nitrogen and phosphorus contents of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.). Adv Microbiol 2:561–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bonaterra A, Camps J, Montesinos E (2005) Osmotically induced trehalose and glycine betaine accumulation improves tolerance to desiccation, survival and efficacy of the postharvest biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans EPS125. FEMS Microbiol Lett 250:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brar SK, Verma M, Tyagi RD, Valéro JR (2006) Recent advances in downstream processing and formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticides. Process Biochem 41(2):323–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bravo A, Likitvivatanavong S, Gill SS, Sobero NM (2011) Bacillus thuringiensis: a story of a successful bioinsecticide. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 41:423–431PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Browne P, Barret M, Morrissey JP, O’Gara F (2013) Molecular based strategies to exploit the inorganic phosphate-solubilization ability of Pseudomonas in sustainable agriculture. Mol Microbial Ecol Rhizosphere 1:615–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. CAB International Centre (2010) The 2010 world wide biopesticides market summary. CAB International Centre, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  19. Cavagnaro TR, Jackson LE, Six J, Ferris H, Goyal S, Asami D, Scow KM (2006) Arbuscular mycorrhizas, microbial communities, nutrient availability, and soil aggregates in organic tomato production. Plant Soil 282(1–2):209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen YP, Rekha PD, Arun AB, Shen FT, Lal WA, Young CC (2006) Phosphate solubilizing bacteria from subtropical soil and their tricalcium phosphate solubilizing abilities. Appl Soil Ecol 34:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Colt JS, Cyr MJ, Zahm SH, Tobias GS, Hartge P (2007) Inferring past pesticide exposures: a matrix of individ-ual active ingredients in home and garden pesticidesused in past decades. Environ Health Perspect. 115:248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. CPL (2006) Biopesticides 2007. CPL Business Consultants, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  23. Dawar S, Wahab S, Tariq M, Zaki MJ (2010) Application of Bacillus species in the control of root rot diseases of crop plants. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 43(4):412–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Salamone IE, Di Salvo LP, Ortega JS, Sorte PM, Urquiaga S, Teixeira KR (2010) Field response of rice paddy crop to Azospirillum inoculation: physiology of rhizosphere bacterial communities and the genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in different parts of the plants. Plant Soil 336(1–2):351–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dobbelaere S, Croonenborghs A, Thys A, Ptacek D, Vanderleyden J, Dutto P, Labandera-Gonzalez C, Caballero-Mellado J, Aguirre JF, Kapulnik Y, Brener S (2001) Responses of agronomically important crops to inoculation with Azospirillum. Funct Plant Biol 28(9):871–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dorigo U, Lefranc M, Leboulanger C, Montuelle B, Humbert JF (2009) Spatial heterogeneity of periphytic microbial communities in a small pesticide–polluted river. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 67:491–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duarte CM, Alonso S, Benito G, Dachs J, Montes C, Pardo Buendía M, Ríos AF, Simó R, Valladares F (2006) Global change. Impact of human activity on the Earth system. CSIC Superior Council of Scientific Investigations, MadridGoogle Scholar
  28. Fenske RA, Day EW Jr (2005) Assessment of exposure for pesticide handlers in agricultural, residential and institutional environments. In: Franklin CA, Worgan JP (eds) Occupational and residential exposure assessment for pesticides. Wiley, Chichester, pp 13–43Google Scholar
  29. Gao X, Lu X, Wu M, Zhang H, Pan R, Tian J, Li S, Liao H (2012) Co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF inhibited soybean red crown rot: from field study to plant defense-related gene expression analysis. PLoS One 7(3):e33977. Scholar
  30. Gelernter WD (2007) Microbial control in Asia: a bellwether for the future? J Invertebr Pathol 95:161–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Global Industry Analysts (2015) Global biopesticides market to reach US$2.8 billion by 2015, according to a new report by global industry analysts, Inc. Available online Scholar
  32. Grand View Research (2015) Biofertilizers market analysis by product (nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing), by application (seed treatment, soil treatment) and segment forecasts to 2022. Available online.–analysis/biofertilizers–industryGoogle Scholar
  33. Harwood RWJ, Lee MSK, Lisansky SG, Quinlan R (2007) Current worldwide markets for biopesticides and success factors for the business. In: Proceedings of the XVIth international plant protection congress/BCPC international congress. Crop Science and Technology, Glasgow, pp 598–599Google Scholar
  34. Industrial Equipment News (2011) Biopesticides market to reach $1 billion in 2010. Available online–market–to/8648Google Scholar
  35. Janisiewicz W (1996) Ecological diversity, niche overlap, and coexistence of antagonists used in developing mixtures for biocontrol of postharvest diseases of apples. Phytopathology 86:473–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jia Y, Gray VM, Straker CJ (2004) The influence of Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation by Vicia faba. Ann Bot 94:251–258PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. John RP, Tyagi RD, Brar SK, Surampalli RY, Prévost D (2011) Bio-encapsulation of microbial cells for targeted agricultural delivery. Crit Rev Biotechnol 31(3):211–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Johnsen K, Jacobsen CS, Torsvik V (2001) Pesticide effects on bacterial diversity in agricultural soils: a review. Biol Fertil Soils 33:443–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kadouri D, Jurkevitch E, Okon Y, Castro-Sowinski S (2005) Ecological and agricultural significance of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates. Crit Rev Microbiol 31:55–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kerry BR (2000) Rhizosphere interactions and the exploitation of microbial agents for the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes. Annu Rev Phytopathol 38(1):423–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kesavachandran C, Pathak MK, Fareed M, Bihari V, Mathur N, Srivastava AK (2009) Health risks of employees working in pesticide retail shops: an exploratory study. Indian J Occup Environ Med 13:121–126PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Khan MR, Khan N, Khan SM (2001) Evaluation of agricultural materials as substrate for mass culture of fungal biocontrol agents of fusarial wilt and root-knot nematode diseases. Ann Appl Biol (TAC-21 Suppl) 22:50–51Google Scholar
  43. Komorowska M (2014) Innovative bioformulations for seed treatment. Preliminary assessment of functional properties in the initial plant growth phase. Przemysl chemiczny. 93:959–963Google Scholar
  44. Kozdroj J, Trevors JT, Van Elsas JD (2004) Influence of introduced potential biocontrol agents on maize seedling growth and bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere. Soil Biol Biochem 36(11):1775–1784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leggett M, Leland J, Kellar K, Epp B (2011) Formulation of microbial biocontrol agents–an industrial perspective. Can J Plant Pathol 33:101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Liang LZ, Zhao X, Yi XY, Chen ZC, Dong XY, Chen RF, Shen RF (2013) Excessive application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers induces soil acidification and phosphorus enrichment during vegetable production in Yangtze River Delta, China. Soil Use Manag 29:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Linderman RG (1988) Mycorrhizal interactions with the rhizosphere microflora: the mycorrhizosphere effect. Phytopathology 78(3):366–371Google Scholar
  48. Mahajan A, Gupta RD (2009) Bio-fertilizers: their kinds and requirement in India. In: Mahajan A, Gupta RD (eds) Integrated nutrient management (INM) in a sustainable rice-wheat cropping system. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 75–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maiyappan S, Amalraj ELD, Santhosh A, Peter AJ (2010) Isolation, evaluation and formulation of selected microbial consortia for sustainable agriculture. J Biofertil Biopestic 2:109–121Google Scholar
  50. Mandal A, Patra AK, Singh D, Swarup A, Masto RE (2007) Effect of long-term application of manure and fertilizer on biological and biochemical activities in soil during crop development stages. Bioresour Technol 98:3585–3592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marimuthu S, Subbian P, Ramamoorthy V, Samiyappan R (2002) Synergistic effect of combined application of Azospirillum and Pseudomonas fluorescens with inorganic fertilizers on root rot incidence and yield of cotton. J Plant Dis Protec 109(6):569–577Google Scholar
  52. Marrone PG (2007) Barriers to adoption of biological control agents and biological pesticides. CAB Rev: Perspect Agri Vet Sci Nutr Natur Resour, CAB International, Wallingford, pp 2–51Google Scholar
  53. Mendes R, Kruijt M, de Bruijn I, Dekkers E, van der Voort M, Schneider JH, Piceno YM, DeSantis TZ, Andersen GL, Bakker PA, Raaijmakers JM (2011) Deciphering the rhizosphere microbiome for disease-suppressive bacteria. Science 332(6033):1097–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Messele B, Pant LM (2012) Effects of inoculation of Sinorhizobium ciceri and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on nodulation, yield and nitrogen and phosphorus uptake of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Shoa Robit Area. J Biofertil Biopestic 3:1000129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Micro Market Monitor (2015) North America biofertilizer market by application (cereals & grains, fruits & vegetables, pulses & oilseeds), by type (nitrogen fixing biofertilizers, phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers, potash mobilizing biofertilizers), by source, by geography –analysis and forecast to 2019. Available online–america–bio–fertilizer–5250154124.html
  56. Mitchell CC, Westerman RL, Brown JR, Peck TR (1991) Overview of long-term agronomic research. Agron J 83:24–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mohiddin FA, Khan MR, Khan SM, Bhat BH (2010) Why Trichoderma is considered super hero (super fungus) against the evil parasites? Plant Pathol J 9(3):92–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Morel MA, Castro-Sowinski S (2013) The complex signaling network in microbe-plant interaction. In: Arora NK (ed) Plant microbe symbiosis: fundamentals and advances. Springer, New Delhi, pp 134–149Google Scholar
  59. Morel MA, Braña V, Castro-Sowinski S (2012) Legume crops, importance and use of bacterial inoculation to increase the production. In: Goyal A (ed) Crop plant. InTech, Rijeka, pp 217–240Google Scholar
  60. Morel MA, Cagide C, Minteguiaga MA, Dardanelli MS, Castro-Sowinski S (2015) The pattern of secreted molecules during the co-inoculation of alfalfa plants with Sinorhizobium meliloti and Delftia sp. strain JD2: an interaction that improves plant yield. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 28:134–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moses M, Johnson ES, Anger WK, Burse VW, Horstman SW, Jackson RJ (1993) Environmental equity and pesticide exposure. Toxicol Health 9:913–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Naderifar M, Daneshian J (2012) Effect of different nitrogen and biofertilizers effect on growth and yield of Brassica napus L. Int J Agric Crop Sci 4:478–482Google Scholar
  63. Naiman AD, Latrónico A, de Salamone IE (2009) Inoculation of wheat with Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens: impact on the production and culturable rhizosphere microflora. Eur J Soil Biol 45(1):44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nakhro N, Dkhar MS (2010) Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on microbial populations and biomass carbon in paddy field. Soil J Agron 9:102–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Natsch A, Keel C, Hebecker N, Laasik E, Défago G (1998) Impact of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 and a derivative with improved biocontrol activity on the culturable resident bacterial community on cucumber roots. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 27(4):365–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Okon Y, Labandera-Gonzalez CA (1994) Agronomic applications of Azospirillum: an evaluation of 20 years worldwide field inoculation. Soil Biol Biochem 12:1591–1601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Olsson PA, Bååth E, Jakobsen I, Söderström B (1996) Soil bacteria respond to presence of roots but not to mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Biol Biochem 28(4–5):463–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Paikray S, Malik V (2010) Microbial formulation for widespread used in agricultural practices: google patentsGoogle Scholar
  69. Pal KK, Tilak KV, Saxena AK, Dey R, Singh CS (2000) Antifungal characteristics of a fluorescent Pseudomonas strain involved in the biological control of Rhizoctonia solani. Microbiol Res 155(3):233–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pandey P, Maheshwari DK (2007) Bioformulation of Burkholderia sp. MSSP with a multispecies consortium for growth promotion of Cajanus cajan. Can J Microbiol 53:213–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Peighami-Ashnaei S, Sharifi-Tehrani A, Ahmadzadeh M, Behboudi K (2009) Interaction of different media on production and biocontrol efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens P-35 and Bacillus subtilis B-3 against grey mould of apple. J Plant Pathol 1:65–70Google Scholar
  72. Pimentel D, Acquay H, Biltonen M, Rice P, Silva M, Nelson J (1992) Environmental and economic costs of pesticide use. Bioscience 42:750–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Prevost K, Couture G, Shipley B, Brzezinski R, Beaulieu C (2006) Effect of chitosan and a biocontrol Streptomycete on field and potato tuber bacterial communities. BioControl 51(4):533–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Probanza A, Garcıa JL, Palomino MR, Ramos B, Mañero FG (2002) Pinus pinea L. seedling growth and bacterial rhizosphere structure after inoculation with PGPR Bacillus (B. licheniformis CECT 5106 and B. pumilus CECT 5105). Appl Soil Ecol 20(2):75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Prasad R, Kumar V, Prasad KS (2014) Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: present concerns and future aspects. Afr J Biotechnol 13(6):705–713Google Scholar
  76. Prasad R, Bhola D, Akdi K, Cruz C, Sairam KVSS, Tuteja N and Varma A (2017a) Introduction to mycorrhiza: Historical development. In: Mycorrhiza (eds. Varma A, Prasad R and Tuteja N) Springer International Publishing AG 1–7Google Scholar
  77. Prasad R, Bhattacharyya A, Nguyen QD (2017b) Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Recent developments, challenges, and perspectives. Front Microbiol 8:1014. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01014Google Scholar
  78. Prasad R, Gill SS, Tuteja N (2018) Crop Improvement Through Microbial Biotechnology. Elsevier (ISBN: 9780444639882)Google Scholar
  79. PRWEB (2014) Europe bio fertilizer market is expected to reach $4,582.2 million in 2017 new report by MicroMarket Monitor. Available online–bio–fertilizer–4637178345.htmlGoogle Scholar
  80. Roesti D, Gaur R, Johri BN, Imfeld G, Sharma S, Kawaljeet K, Aragno M (2006) Plant growth stage, fertiliser management and bio-inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria affect the rhizobacterial community structure in rain-fed wheat fields. Soil Biol Biochem 38(5):1111–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rzewnicki P (2000) Ohio organic producers: final survey results. Online. Ohio State University Extension, College of Food Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Bulletin, Special Circular 174Google Scholar
  82. Saharan BS, Nehra V (2011) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: a critical review. Life Sci Med Res 21(1):30–39Google Scholar
  83. Sanborn M, Kerr KJ, Sanin LH, Cole DC, Bassil KL, Vakil C (2007) Non cancer health effects of pesticides: systematic review and implications for family doctors. Can Fam Physician 53:1712–1720PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Schisler DA, Slininger PJ, Behle RW, Jackson MA (2004) Formulation of Bacillus spp. for biological control of plant diseases. Phytopathology 94:1267–1271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schubler A, Schwarzott D, Walker C (2001) A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution. Mycol Res 105(12):1413–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Seneviratne G, Zavahir JS, Bandara WM, Weerasekara ML (2008) Fungal-bacterial biofilms: their development for novel biotechnological applications. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24(6):739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Smith RS (1992) Legume inoculant formulation and application. Can J Microbiol 38(6):485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Spyrou IM, Karpouzas DG, Menkissoglu-Spiroudi U (2009) Do botanical pesticides alter the structure of the soil microbial community. Microb Ecol 58:715–727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. St-Arnaud M, Vujanovic V (2007) Effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant diseases and pests. In: Mycorrhizae in crop production. Haworth, New York, pp 67–122Google Scholar
  90. Steenhoudt O, Vanderleyden J (2000) Azospirillum, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium closely associated with grasses: genetic, biochemical and ecological aspects. FEMS Microbiol Rev 24(4):487–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stenersen J (2004) Chemical pesticides: mode of action and toxicology. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tajini F, Trabelsi M, Drevon JJ (2012) Combined inoculation with Glomus intraradices and Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 increases phosphorus use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Saudi J Biol Sci 19:157–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tavasolee AN, Aliasgharzad G, Salehijouzani MM, Asgharzadeh A (2011) Interactive effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobial strains on Chickpea growth and nutrient content in plant. Afr J Microbiol 10:7585–7591Google Scholar
  94. Thakore Y (2006) The biopesticide market for global agricultural use. Ind Biotechnol 2:194–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Trivedi P, Pandey A, Palni LM (2005) Carrier-based preparations of plant growth-promoting bacterial inoculants suitable for use in cooler regions. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:941–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vahjen W, Munch JC, Tebbe CC (1995) Carbon source utilization of soil extracted microorganisms as a tool to detect the effects of soil supplemented with genetically engineered and non-engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum and a recombinant peptide at the community level. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 18(4):317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vessey JK (2003) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers. Plant Soil 255:571–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277(5325):494–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zancarini A, Lépinay C, Burstin J, Duc G, Lemanceau P, Moreau D, Munier-Jolain N, Pivato B, Rigaud T, Salon C, Mougel C (2013) Combining molecular microbial ecology with ecophysiology and plant genetics for a better understanding of plant–microbial communities’ interactions in the rhizosphere. Mol Microbial Ecol Rhizosphere 1:69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zayadan BK, Matorin DN, Baimakhanova GB, Bolathan K, Oraz GD, Sadanov AK (2014) Promising microbial consortia for producing biofertilizers for rice fields. Microbiology 83:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zolla G, Bakker MG, Badri DV, Chaparro JM, Sheflin AM, Manter DK, Vivanco J (2013) Understanding root-microbiome interactions. Mol Microbial Ecol Rhizosphere 1:743–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Usha Rani
    • 1
  • Vivek Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Himalayan School of Biosciences, Swami Rama Himalayan UniversityDehradunIndia

Personalised recommendations