Psychological Countermeasures

  • Gro Mjeldheim SandalEmail author
  • Gloria R. Leon


This chapter reviews the current “state of the art” and considers new countermeasures for preventing or reducing the likelihood of psychological problems and supporting psychological resilience among crewmembers during long-duration space missions. Here emphasis will be put on effective astronaut selection, crew composition, training, and support of multicultural crews on long-duration missions. Historic differences among national space agencies in their attention to and application of psychological methods spanning the selection through the mission process are discussed. The continuation of future multinational long-duration space missions requires further culturally sensitive psychological research and operational planning to maintain health and performance, and prevent human errors and accidents. The next steps of future technology such as virtual reality or robotic assistants open new opportunities that need to be discussed before and tested also on Earth and Earth orbit as well, also with their impact on the crews’ health and well-being. The development of these technologies is crucial for supporting crews not only on a voyage to Mars but also during their stay on the planetary surface.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychosocial ScienceUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinnesotaUSA

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