Traditionally, fluoroscopy is widely used for guiding catheter movement during ablation procedures and make many patients free from severe arrhythmias. As we all know, radiation exposure is harmful to the patients. The medical staffs still receive cumulative radiation exposure despite wearing heavy-lead aprons for protection. Besides, the heavy-lead aprons exert heavy physical burden and thermal fatigue to the staffs. Recently, three-dimensional navigation system based on magnetic field or electric field is widely used in ablation procedures. Some operators begin to practice mapping and ablation under the guidance of three-dimensional navigation system with significantly reduced fluoroscopy or even without fluoroscopy. Among those three-dimensional navigation systems, Carto™ system utilizes magnetic field and electronic filed whereas EnSite™ system utilizes electronic filed for spatial navigation. Here we introduce the zero-fluoroscopic techniques for placing catheters, including right ventricle, high right atrium, His, and coronary sinus catheter, and the techniques for reconstructing models using the two kinds of navigation system.
Catheter Catheterization Placement Insertion Model reconstruction Radiation Three-dimensional Navigation
Left anterior oblique
Pulmonary vein antrum
Right anterior oblique
Right ventricular outflow tract
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