Multi-criteria Evaluation of Water Heating Alternatives for Promoting Solar Water Heater in Solapur District

  • G. K. Inamdar
  • B. S. Gandhare
Conference paper


In Indian domestic and Industrial sector, SWH has high scope for developing energy production. The total installed collector area expected to increase from 3.24 million m2 in 2010 to 18.70 million m2 in 2020. The people are aware of the importance of solar energy utilization for environment, economy, and industry, but still, solar energy utilization in rural and urban areas of India is quite limited. For promotion, selection of renewable energy multi-criteria has been used by many researchers [3, 5, 7]. In literature, there is a scarcity of using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a multi-criteria decision-making method (MCDM) for various alternatives of water heating for promoting the application of solar water heater for domestic and industrial applications.

The paper presents the use of AHP, multi-criteria to evaluate four water heating alternatives, solar water heater, fuel or gas, coal or biomass, and electricity and rank the alternatives. The evaluation is based on identified ten criteria from literature and experts (academic, industry and users) opinion are cost, social impact (quality of life), environment (impact on ecosystem and pollution), technical (design, availability, safety, maintenance, and training requirement) and location plant size (size and flexibility). The methodology has been presented in the flowchart. A weight of each criterion has been determined and score for each alternative water heating preferences have been determined and it is followed by sensitivity analysis. Meaningful conclusions have been drawn such as safety (24.33%) is the highest important criteria, followed by maintenance (14.62%), pollution (14.20%) while selecting water heating. Further, it is helpful for improving the design of water heating.


Solar water heater MCDM AHP 


  1. 1.
    Algarin CAR, Llanos AP, Castro AO (2017) An analytic hierarchy process based approach for evaluating renewable energy sources. Int J Energy Econ Policy 7(4):38–47Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Daniel J, Vishal NV, Albert B, Selvarsan I (2010) Evaluation of the significant renewable energy resources in India using analytical hierarchy process. In: Multiple criteria decision making for sustainable energy and transportation systems. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 13–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kabir ABMZ, Shihan SMA (2003) Selection of renewable energy sources using analytic hierarchy process. In: International symposium on the analytic hierarchy process, BaliGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kumar A, Sah B, Singh AR, Deng Y, He X, Kumar P, Bansal RC (2017) A review of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) towards sustainable renewable energy development. Renew Sust Energ Rev 69:596–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mohsen MS, Akash BA (1997) Evaluation of domestic solar water heating system in Jordan using analytic hierarchy process. Energy Convers Manag 38(18):1815–1822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Murphy A, Donoghue M (2009) The adoption of solar water heating: exploring the Newzeland case. Massey UniversityGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pohekar SD, Ramachandran M (2004) Multi-criteria evaluation of cooking energy alternatives for promoting parabolic solar cooker in India. Renew Energy 29(9):1449–1460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saaty TL (2008) Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. Int J Serv Sci 1(1):83–98Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang Z, Yang W, Qiu F, Zhang X, Zhao X (2015) Solar water heating: from theory, application, marketing, and research. Renew Sust Energ Rev 41:68–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. K. Inamdar
    • 1
  • B. S. Gandhare
    • 1
  1. 1.Sinhgad College of EngineeringSolapurIndia

Personalised recommendations