Advertisement

Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae/Compositae)

(Syns.: C. balearicum Porta; C. byzantinum Clementi; C. cicorea Dumort.; C. glabratum C. Presl; C. glaucum Hoffmanns. & Link; C. officinale Gueldenst. ex Ledeb.)
  • Shahid AkbarEmail author
Chapter
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

An erect fairly woody perennial herb, native to Europe, it is now naturalized all over the world, and found in India, China, Iran, North and South Africa, North America, and Australia. The plant has been used since earlier times as it was known to ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. It is a typical Mediterranean vegetable, and widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes in Europe and Asia, and used as a winter vegetable in Chile. Aqueous root extract contains large amounts of carbohydrates and is safe for human consumption. Dioscorides described two kinds of it, the wild and the cultivated, and described both as astringent, cooling and stomachic, and stated that due to its cooling property, it is also applied externally in inflammatory affections. Chicory root dried, roasted and powdered was extensively used as a substitute for coffee, and is now added to certain brands of coffee. From roots, triterpenic constituents, an aliphatic δ-lactone, 11–15% polysaccharide, 10–22% of fructose, bitter principles lactucin and lactucopicrin, tannin, both a fatty and a volatile oil, and small amounts of several other compounds have been isolated. Ethanol and aqueous root extracts produced significant anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced paw edema, increased CAT and GPx activities in paw tissue and decreased serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 levels; however, one report stated that ethanol root extract increased (59%) carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. Ethanol extract of whole plant lowered serum glucose by 20%, TGs by 91% and TC by 16% of diabetic rats with no change in serum insulin levels. Intestinal absorption of glucose is reduced in chicory water extract or inulin perfused rat gut. A proprietary bioactive extract of chicory root showed potential role in the management of osteoarthritis in a phase I placebo-controlled trial.

Keywords

Almeirão Bazarula Chicorei  Cichorienkraut Cikorie Hindiba Horseweed Kasni Kãsani Ku-tsai 

References

  1. 1.
    Abbas ZK, Saggu S, Sakeran MI, et al. Phytochemical, antioxidant and mineral composition of hydroalcoholic extract of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) leaves. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2015;22:322–6.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ahmed N, Tarannum S. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain of alloxan diabetic albino rats: presence of an inhibitor of this enzyme activity in the cerebral extract. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2009;29:174–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al Akeel R, Al-Sheikh Y, Mateen A, et al. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2014;21:147–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aqil F, Ahmad I. Antibacterial properties of traditionally used Indian medicinal plants. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2007;29:79–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Atta AH, Elkoly TA, Mouneir SM, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of methanol extracts of Zingiber officinale and Cichorium intybus. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010;72:564–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azay-Milhau J, Ferrare K, Leroy J, et al. Antihyperglycemic effect of a natural chicoric acid extract of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.): a comparative in vitro study with the effects of caffeic and ferulic acids. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;150:755–60.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bais HP, Ravishankar GA. Cichorium intybus L.—cultivation, processing, utility, value addition and biotechnology, with an emphasis on current status and future prospects. J Sci Food Agri. 2001;81:467–84.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Balbaa SI, Zaki AY, Abdel-Wahab SM, el-Denshary ES, Motazz-Bellah M. Preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of the roots of different varieties of Cichorium intybus. Planta Med. 1973;24:133–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Behnam-Rassouli M, Aliakbarpour A, Hosseinzadeh H, et al. Investigating the effect of aqueous extract of Chicorium intybus L. leaves on offspring sex ratio in rat. Phytother Res. 2010;24:1417–21.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bischoff TA, Kelley CJ, Karchesy Y, et al. Antimalarial activity of lactucin and lactucopicrin: sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Cichorium intybus L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;95:455–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cadot P, Kochuyt AM, Deman R, Stevens EA. Inhalative occupational and ingestive immediate-type allergy caused by chicory (Cichorium intybus). Clin Exp Allergy. 1996;26:940–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cavin C, Delannoy M, Malnoe A, et al. Inhibition of the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 by chicory extract. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;327:742–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chow J. Probiotics and prebiotics: a brief overview. J Ren Nutr. 2002;12:76–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D’evoli L, Morroni F, Lombardi-Boccia G, et al. Red chicory (Cichorium intybus L. cultivar) as a potential source of antioxidant anthocyanins for intestinal health. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;704310.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    El-Sayed YS, Lebda MA, Hassinin M, Neoman SA. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root extract regulates the oxidative status and antioxidant gene transcripts in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0121549.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Forst AW. Naunyn-schmiedebergs Archiv fur experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. 1940;195:1–25.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Friis B, Hjorth N, Vail JT Jr, Mitchell JC. Occupational contact dermatitis from Cichorium (chicory, endive) and Lactuca (lettuce). Contact Dermatitis. 1975;1:311–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    García J, Atalah E, Urteaga C, et al. Dietary carotene intake and lung cancer among men from Santiago. Rev Med Chil. 1995;123:51–60 (Spanish).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ghamarian A, Abdollahi M, Su X, et al. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats. Daru. 2012;20:56.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gürbüz I, Ustün O, Yeşilada E, et al. In vivo gastroprotective effects of five Turkish folk remedies against ethanol-induced lesions. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;83:241–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hassan HA, Yousef MI. Ameliorating effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)-supplemented diet against nitrosamine precursors-induced liver injury and oxidative stress in male rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2163–9.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hazra B, Sarkar R, Bhattacharyya S, Roy P. Tumour inhibitory activity of chicory root extract against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Fitoterapia. 2002;73:730–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Holloway L, Moynihan S, Abrams SA, et al. Effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr. 2007;97:365–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hughes R, Rowland IR. Stimulation of apoptosis by two prebiotic chicory fructans in the rat colon. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:43–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hussain H, Hussain J, Ali S, et al. Cichorins B and C: two new benzo-isochromenes from Cichorium intybus. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14:297–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hussain H, Hussain J, Saleem M, et al. Cichorin A: a new benzo-isochromene from Cichorium intybus. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2011;13:566–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jurgoński A, Juśkiewicz J, Zduńczyk Z, Król B. Caffeoylquinic acid-rich extract from chicory seeds improves glycemia, atherogenic index, and antioxidant status in rats. Nutrition. 2012;28:300–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Keshri G, Lakshmi V, Singh MM. Postcoital contraceptive activity of some indigenous plants in rats. Contraception. 1998;57:357–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kim HM, Kim HW, Lyu YS, et al. Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions by Cichorium intybus. Pharmacol Res. 1999;40:61–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kim M, Shin HK. The water-soluble extract of chicory influences serum and liver lipid concentrations, cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations and fecal lipid excretion in rats. J Nutr. 1998;128:1731–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim M, Shin HK. The water-soluble extract of chicory reduces glucose uptake from the perfused jejunum in rats. J Nutr. 1996;126:2236–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kisiel W, Michalska K. A new coumarin glucoside ester from Cichorium intybus. Fitoterapia. 2002;73:544–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kleessen B, Schwarz S, Boehm A, et al. Jerusalem artichoke and chicory inulin in bakery products affect faecal microbiota of healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2007;98:540–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Krylova SG, Efimova LA, Vymiatina ZK, Zueva EP. The effect of cichorium root extract on the morphofunctional state of liver in rats with carbon tetrachloride induced hepatitis model. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2006;69:34–6 (Russian).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Krylova SG, Vymyatnina ZK, Zueva EP, et al. Effects of Cichorium intybus L. root extract on secretory activity of the stomach in health and ulcer disease. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2015;159:638–41.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kumari R, Ali M, Aeri V. Two new triterpenoids from Cichorium intybus L. roots. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14:7–13.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lavelli V. Antioxidant activity of minimally processed red chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) evaluated in xanthine oxidase-, myeloperoxidase-, and diaphorase-catalyzed reactions. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7194–200.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Li GY, Gao HY, Huang J, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of Cichorium intybus L., a traditional Uighur medicine, against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:4753–60.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lin W, Liu C, Yang H, et al. Chicory, a typical vegetable in Mediterranean diet, exerts a therapeutic role in established atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015;59:1803–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Liu H, Wang Q, Liu Y, Chen G, Cui J. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cichorium intybus root extract using orthogonal matrix design. J Food Sci. 2013;78:M258–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mares D, Romagnoli C, Tosi B, et al. Chicory extracts from Cichorium intybus L. as potential antifungals. Mycopathologia. 2005;160:85–91.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Marteau P, Jacobs H, Cazaubiel M, et al. Effects of chicory inulin in constipated elderly people: a double-blind controlled trial. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011;62:164–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mascolo N, Autore G, Capasso F. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytother Res. 1987;1:28–31.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Minaiyan M, Ghannadi AR, Mahzouni P, Abed AR. Preventive effect of Cichorium Intybus L. Two extracts on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Int J Prev Med. 2012;3:351–7.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nishimura M, Ohkawara T, Kanayama T, et al. Effects of the extract from roasted chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root containing inulin-type fructans on blood glucose, lipid metabolism, and fecal properties. J Tradit Complement Med. 2015;5:161–7.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Noori S, Mahboob T. Role of electrolytes disturbances and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in cisplatin-induced renal toxicity and effects of ethanolic extract of Cichorium intybus. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012;25:857–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Olsen NJ, Branch VK, Jonnala G, et al. Phase 1, placebo-controlled, dose escalation trial of chicory root extract in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:156.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Patel VK, Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H. Anti-inflammatory effects of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) in pyorrhoea. Proc Indian Pharmacol Soc Annual Conf. 1983;50 (Abstr. 112).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Patel VK, Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H. Cichorium intibus Linn.: a novel herbal preparation as a gum massage, dentrifice, anti-inflammatory and antiplaque agent (review & applied study). Therapie (France). 1983;38:405–15.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Petrovic J, Stanojkovic A, Comic LJ, Curcic S. Antibacterial activity of Cichorium intybus. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:737–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pirson F, Detry B, Pilette C. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma caused by chicory and oral allergy syndrome associated with bet v 1-related protein. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2009;19:306–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pushparaj PN, Low HK, Manikandan J, et al. Antidiabetic effects of Cichorium intybus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111:430–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rani P, Khullar N. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their antienteric potential against multidrug resistant Salmonella typhi. Phytother Res. 2004;18:670–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rasmussen MK, Zamaratskaia G, Ekstrand B. In vivo effect of dried chicory root (Cichorium intybus L.) on xenobiotica metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes in porcine liver. Toxicol Lett. 2011;200:88–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Reddy BS, Hamid R, Rao CV. Effect of dietary oligofructose and inulin on colonic preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci inhibition. Carcinogenesis. 1997;18:1371–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Reddy BS. Prevention of colon cancer by pre- and probiotics: evidence from laboratory studies. Br J Nutr. 1998;80:S219–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ripoll C, Flourié B, Megnien S, et al. Gastrointestinal tolerance to an inulin-rich soluble roasted chicory extract after consumption in healthy subjects. Nutrition. 2010;26:799–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rizvi W, Fayazuddin M, Shariq S, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of roots of Cichorium intybus due to its inhibitory effect on various cytokines and antioxidant activity. Anc Sci Life. 2014;34:44–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Roberfroid MB, Cumps J, Devogelaer JP. Dietary chicory inulin increases whole-body bone mineral density in growing male rats. J Nutr. 2002;132:3599–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Roberfroid MB. Health benefits of nondigestible oligosaccharides. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;427:211–9 (Review).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Saied S, Shah S, Ali Z, et al. Chemical constituents of Cichorium intybus and their inhibitory effects against urease and alpha-chymotrypsin enzymes. Nat Prod Commun. 2011;6:1117–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Samarghandian S, Borji A, Tabasi SH. Effects of Cichorium intybus Linn on blood glucose, lipid constituents and selected oxidative stress parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2013;13:231–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schaffer S, Schmitt-Schillig S, Müller WE, Eckert GP. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;56 Suppl 1:115–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schmidt BM, Ilic N, Poulev A, Raskin I. Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:1131–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Schumacher E, Vigh E, Molnár V, et al. Thrombosis preventive potential of chicory coffee consumption: a clinical study. Phytother Res. 2011;25:744–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sinkovič L, Demšar L, Žnidarčič D, et al. Phenolic profiles in leaves of chicory cultivars (Cichorium intybus L.) as influenced by organic and mineral fertilizers. Food Chem. 2015;166:507–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Street RA, Sidana J, Prinsloo G. Cichorium intybus: traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:579319.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Süntar I, Küpeli Akkol E, Keles H, et al. Comparative evaluation of traditional prescriptions from Cichorium intybus L. for wound healing: stepwise isolation of an active component by in vivo bioassay and its mode of activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;143:299–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Szentmihályi K, May Z, Süle K, Then M. Mineral content of some herbs and plant extracts with anti-inflammatory effect used in gastrointestinal diseases. Orv Hetil. 2013;154:538–43 (Hungarian).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tousch D, Lajoix AD, Hosy E, et al. Chicoric acid, a new compound able to enhance insulin release and glucose uptake. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:131–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wesołowska A, Nikiforuk A, Michalska K, Kisiel W, Chojnacka-Wójcik E. Analgesic and sedative activities of lactucin and some lactucin-like guaianolides in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;107:254–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Willi R, Pfab F, Huss-Marp J, et al. Contact anaphylaxis and protein contact dermatitis in a cook handling chicory leaves. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;60:226–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yook JS, Kim M, Pichiah PB, et al. The antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells of Chicory cultivated using three different kinds of fertilizers in the absence and presence of pesticides. Molecules. 2015;20:12061–75.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zafar R, Mujahid Ali S. Antihepatotoxic effects of root and root callus extracts of Cichorium intybus L. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;63:227–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zhou CX, Zou L, Zhao ZZ, et al. Terpenoids from Cichorium intybus. Nat Prod Commun. 2012;7:971–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zhu CS, Zhang B, Lin ZJ, et al. Relationship between high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and uric acid-lowering activities of Cichorium intybus L. Molecules. 2015;20:9455–67.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.StocktonUSA

Personalised recommendations