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Nardostachys jatamansi (D. Don) DC (Caprifoliaceae)

(Syns.: N. chinensis Batalin; N. grandiflora DC; Patrinia jatamansi (Jones) D. Don.)
  • Shahid AkbarEmail author
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Abstract

An alpine perennial herb found in the Himalayas, and Europe. This plant has been used by Hindu physicians since ancient times and is mentioned by Sushruta in a prescription for epilepsy (6th Cent. B.C.), and is considered a nervine tonic and carminative, and an aromatic adjunct in the preparation of aromatic oils and ghritas (butters). In Ayurveda, the rhizome/root is highly esteemed as incense and the powder is used to treat mental disorders, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and convulsions, and as a bitter tonic and antispasmodic, and is also mentioned to be useful in cancers. Infusion of fresh roots is employed in the treatment of spasmodic hysterical affections, especially palpitation of heart, nervous headache, chorea, and flatulence; also useful in menopausal disturbances, hysteroepilepsy, and other nervous and convulsive ailments. Dioscorides described it under the name Nardin, and ancient Hindu writers also named it Gangitis, because the Ganges flowed from the foot of the mountain where the plant grew. Two sesquiterpenoids, jatamols A and B, neolignans and lignans from the roots, valeranone (also known as yatamanson), three terpenoid identified as jatamansic acid, nardal, and nardin, a terpenoid ester, and two sesquiterpenoids were isolated from rhizomes. Its sedative and depressant actions were first reported in 1957. Acute oral administration of alcoholic extract did not change brain levels of NE and DA, but caused a significant increase in 5-HT, 5-HIAA, and GABA levels. However, a 15-days treatment caused a significant increase in the levels of all monoamines and inhibitory amino acids. Ethanol extract significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed diazepam-, scopolamine-, and aging-induced amnesia of mice. Powdered roots, daily for one month, modestly but statistically significantly improved the latency to falling asleep, duration and undisturbed restful sleep in Indian patients with primary insomnia of up to 5 years duration.

Keywords

Balchhad Bhutakesi Echte narde Gan song Indian valerian Jatamasi Muskroot Nard indien Nardeen Sunbulutteeb 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.StocktonUSA

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