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Anode Materials, SEI, Carbon, Graphite, Conductivity, Graphene, Reversible, Formation

  • Beta Writer
Chapter

Abstract

Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) have been commonly used as power sources in consumer electronics including laptops, cellular phones, and full and hybrid electric vehicles because of their long cycling life, high energy capacity, and eco-friendliness.

1.1 Introduction

Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) have been commonly used as power sources in consumer electronics including laptops, cellular phones, and full and hybrid electric vehicles because of their long cycling life, high energy capacity, and eco-friendliness [1, 47, 48, 49]. Considerable efforts have been devised to examine useful electrode materials for Li-ion batteries with long cycle life and high capacity [1]. Due to its high theoretical capacity (718 mAh g−1), low cost, relative abundance [50, 51, 52], and environmental benignity, NiO has attracted considerable attention among multiple TMOs for Li-ion batteries [1]. Through solid-state thermolysis of Ni-MOF, porous NiO had been fabricated for Li-ion batteries and showed a high initial capacity of ~800 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 [1, 53]. That NiO nanoflowers utilized as anodes for Li-ion batteries displayed a reversible capacity of 551.8 mAh g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 after 50 cycles [54] had been indicated by Mollamahale and others [1]. Porous Co3O4/CNT composites were synthesized through the decomposition of ZIF-67/CNTs and revealed an excellent specific capacity of 813 mAh g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 after 100 cycles, whilst that of pure Co3O4 had been just 118 mAh g−1 [1, 55]. Porous ZnO/CNT composites derived from Zn-MOFs/CNT precursors showed superior lithium-ion storage performance with a high reversible capacity of 419.8 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 200 mA g−1, whilst the pure ZnO subsample had been ultimately stabilized with a capacity of less than 200 mAh g−1 [1, 56]. Introducing 1D CNTs into MOF-based NiO must be an efficient way to improve the lithium-ion transport and storage performance for Li-ion batteries [1].

The current commercial graphite carbon electrodes with a low theoretical capacity (372 mAh g−1) indicate inferior rate performance and restricted energy capacity, particularly in the high-energy consuming applications [2]. That sort of research’s principal aim is to attain the materials with superior properties such as high capacity, fast Li-ion diffusion rate, easy to operate, and stable structure [2]. Materials, a number of metal oxides with high theoretical capacity have aroused more and more attention including SnO2, Fe3O4, Co3O4, and MoO2 [2]. Due to safe lithiation potential (Zhang and others [57, 58]) and its high theoretical capacity (782 mAh g−1), SnO2 is treated as one of the most extensively investigated anode materials for Li-ion batteries [2]. Jiang and others [59] have utilized the graphene/TiO2–SnO2 composites as the anode; this anode deliver the enhanced cycling performance (537 mAh g−1 at 50 mA g−1 accompanied by columbic efficiency of 97% after 50 cycles) and satisfactory reversible capacity (250 mAh g−1 even at the current density 1000 mA g−1) [2]. “Han and others [60] have prepared TiO2–SnO2–graphene aerogels with a high reversible capacity of 750 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 for 100 cycles” [2]. Through Tang and others [61], mesoporous graphene-based TiO2/SnO2 nanosheet is synthesized and it can deliver a huge reversible capacity of 600 mAh g−1 at current density of 160 mA g−1 [2]. The prepared commodities indicate a distinctive nanostructure, a huge BET surface area of 274.5 m2 g−1, and high chemical purities [2]. An outstanding electrochemical performance is shown by the SnO2–TiO2@graphene composites, and the discharge capacity can arrive at high as 1276 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at the current density 200 mA g−1 [2]. It is still maintained the huge capacity of 611 mAh g−1 at an ultra-high current density of 2000 mA g−1, when utilized as an anode for Li-ion batteries [2].

The ionic and electronic electrical conductivity of TiO2 (anatase) is comparatively inferior, leading to the low electronic transfer and ion diffusion efficiency, which might severely decline the electrochemical properties for Li-ion batteries as a semiconductor material [3]. Various carbon-added TiO2 composites [62, 63, 64, 65] were indicated and employed as the anode materials of Li-ion batteries, and those carbon-added composites did display an enhanced cycle retention and rate performance; this retention demonstrated that the addition of carbon actually fosters the electrical conductivity of the entire architecture [3]. Carbon can safeguard TiO2 from the direct contact with electrolyte; this electrolyte additional enhances the structure resistance to electrode material invalidation and pulverization [3]. Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), characteristic layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), has aroused considerable attention as a fruitful electrode material because of its high theoretical specific capacity and distinctive 2D layered structure where hexagonal layers of Mo are stuck in two S layers and held together by strong covalent forces, whilst the MoS2 lamella is bonded by weak van der Waals relationships [3, 66]. Once assessed as the anode material for Li-ion batteries, the bulk MoS2 might suffer tremendous volume expansion, which results in unanticipated pulverization and serious systemic deformation, which triggers a fairly meager cycling performance, whilst the few-layer MoS2 configuration can keep the few-layer MoS2’s original structure and become more stable during the discharge/charge cycles because of the ultra-thin 2D flexible nanostructure [3]. Apart from, few-layer MoS2 nanosheets enhance a fast insertion/extraction of lithium ions and provide more active sites to enhance the specific capacity [3]. Once assessed as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries, the synthesized MoS2-C@TiO2 nano-composites display excellent cyclic performance and high specific capacity [3].

Based on transition metal oxides (TMOs) including TiO2 [67], ZnO [68], CuO [69], Fe3O4 [70], NiO [71], CoOx [72, 73, 74, 75] as anode materials for Li-ion batteries, and MnO [76], has made considerable progress among the wide range of efforts [4]. Co3O4 materials with multiple structures have been efficiently prepared, including lamellar [77, 78], nanorods [79], hollow spheres [80], nanoparticles [81, 82], and cubes [4, 83]. High lithium storage Co3O4 electrodes could be obtained by the indicators of designing hollow structures [4]. There is still a challenge to enhance the electric conductivity and agglomeration issue of Co3O4, which are the contextual factors impeding the development of Co3O4 electrodes for use in Li-ion batteries [4]. Carbonaceous materials have functioned as the most optimum conductive materials to enhance the electric conductivity of Li-ion batteries’ electrodes [4]. Two-dimensional (2D) graphene (GR) with an excellent electric conductivity, systemic flexibility [84], and rich surface area, is another influential carbon material [4]. A hybrid of these two types of materials which formed a new 3-D (3D) layered structure is the most efficient technique in order to harness the advantages of the 1D CNTs and 2D GR [4]. The 3D graphene/carbon nanotubes (GR/CNTs) network can not just maintain the excellent properties of CNTs and GR though enhance the inferior electric conductivity between graphene sheets [4, 85]. Co3O4 hollow microsphere/graphene/carbon nanotube (Co3O4/GR/CNT) flexible film is prepared through a two-stage technique; this technique comprises a subsequent thermal decrease process and a straightforward filtration route [4]. That the film electrode showed better lithium storage capacities in rate and cycling performances than hollow Co3O4 materials is revealed by the results [4].

Numerous researches on CuO/graphene composites utilized as Li-ion batteries anode have been indicated; for instance, Rai and others [86] have synthesized CuO/rGO nanocomposite through a spex-milling technique [5]. The first discharge capacity of 1043.3 mAh g−1 had been delivered by the CuO/rGO composite, and the charge capacity can be maintained at 516.4 mAh g−1 after 45 cycles at 0.1 mA cm−2 [5]. Enhanced anodic performance, which is compared to the pure CuO nanoparticles, had been shown by this CuO/rGO composite [5]. A novel kind of CuO nanosheets/rGO composite paper, which revealed better cyclic retention than that of the pure CuO nanosheets had been indicated by Liu and others [5, 87]. Improved electrochemical performance than pure CuO had been demonstrated by the composites [5]. Porous CuO nanorods/rGO had been synthesizeded by Zhang and others [88] composite through hydrothermal reaction [5]. Improved electrochemical properties than the pristine CuO nanorods were shown by the composite electrode [5]. A facile refluxing approach had been utilized to synthesize ultra-short rice-like CuO-NRs/rGO composite [5]. Cu2+ ions absorbed into Cu(OH)2 and then rapidly dehydrated into CuO-NRs under high temperature, with homogeneous distribution on the rGO nanosheets after the addition of NaOH [5]. The as-prepared CuO-NRs/rGO composite anode indicates enhanced electrochemical performance in Li-ion batteries due to the synergetic effect between the high electrical conductivity of rGO nanosheets and the well-dispersed CuO-NRs [5]. The rGO nanosheets offer a substrate for the anchoring of CuO-NRs and an electrical network to preserve the electrical contacts between the active material and current collector [5]. A huge reversible capacity, satisfactory rate property of CuO-NRs/rGO composite, and advantageous cyclic performance, could be attained [5].

Throughout the overcharge process, the current marketed graphite anode with a low operating voltage versus Li/Li+, which results in the generation of lithium dendrite, leading to serious safety issue (Zhou and others [89]), [6]. The development of a practical TiO2 material for commercialization is still restricted because of its low theoretical capacity (336 mAh g−1), inferior electric conductivity (~10−13 S cm−1), and low lithium diffusion coefficient (~10−9 to 10−13 cm2 s−1) (Wagemaker and others [90]; Kamata and others [91]), [6]. It is still a considerable challenge to employ TiO2 nanostructures as anode in Li-ion batteries to settle the instinct low electronic electrical conductivity (Chu and others [92]) and the aggregation issue [6]. Owing to the high electrical conductivity of carbonaceous materials, considerable efforts have been made to construct multiple TiO2/C nanostructures, the aggregation of TiO2 nanostructures is reasonably well tackled and in which carbon serves as conceptual framework to foster the electron transport ability [6]. The electrical conductivity of carbon matrix is still inadequate due to the low pyrolysis temperature, which substantially affects the electric and reactivity transfer ability and consequently, the lithium storage capacity even though enhanced electrochemical properties of TiO2/C nano-composites have been shown [6]. Carbon, which is Dual-doped, can drastically enhance the electric conductivity performance and the lithium storage performance because of the greater electronegativity and the systemic defects (Wang and others [93, 94]; Xing and others [95]; Zhuang and others [96]), [6]. The incorporation of heteroatoms in carbon matrix and the rational design of TiO2/C nano-composites are both of considerable significant for obtaining high electrochemical property as anode in Li-ion batteries [6]. Nano-TiO2 anchored on N/S dual-doped carbon conceptual framework (NSC@TiO2) had been accomplished through a facile technique as high performance anode material for Li-ion batteries [6].

Co3O4 had been a fascinating Li-ion batteries’ anode material due to its high theoretical specific capacity (890 mAh g−1), low cost, eco-friendliness, and relative abundance, among multiple TMOs [7]. The extensive application of Co3O4-based anodes had been restricted because of its tremendous volume expansion effect in the process of charge/discharge [7]. An efficient strategy had been to fabricate mesoporous Co3O4-based nanomaterials as potential electrode materials to solve the issue [7]. The mesoporous Co3O4-based nanomaterials normally showed satisfactory performance because of some distinctive mesoporous Co3O4-based nanomaterials’ huge specific surface area, a huge number of holes efficiently impeding the systemic disintegration and potential hazards triggered by volume expansion in the process of charge/discharge, and rapid mass transfer between the electrolyte and the active material [7]. At a current density of 0.1, a high reversible capacity of 1067 mAh had been delivered by Cluster-like Co3O4 g−1 Ah g−1 after 100 cycles [7, 97]. Upon 30 cycles at a current density of 0.1 Ah g−1 [98], a stable specific discharge/charge capacity of 765 and 749 mAh g−1 had been shown by Mesoporous Co3O4 microdisks [7]. The designation and synthesis of mesoporous Co3O4-based nanomaterials owning special distribution of particle and pore sizes were still quite required for additional amelioration of performance [7]. A novel mesoporous dandelion-like Co3O4 nanomaterial had been synthesized [7]. “The as-prepared dandelion-like mesoporous Co3O4 consisted of well-distributed nanoneedles which were about 50 nm in width and about 5 μm in length” [7]. The as-prepared Co3O4 mesoporous dandelion-like Co3O4 nanomaterial reveals superior electrochemical performance of Li-ion batteries when assessed as anode materials [7].

Transition metal oxides (TMOs), including Co3O4 [99], MnO2 [100], V2O5 [101], and Fe3O4 [102], have been researched as fruitful anode materials for Li-ion batteries because of natural relative abundance [103, 104] and their high theoretical capacities [8]. MCo2O4 (M = Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn) have been commonly used as anode materials to substitute graphite, which owes to their high theoretical capacities [105, 106, 107, 108], as a kind of ternary TMOs [8]. More substantially, high specific capacity, which is usually two times greater than that of traditional graphite-based materials is shown by CuCo2O4 [8]. “Yuan’s group [109] synthesized CuCo2O4, the discharge capacity of which still remained 740 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C (1 C = 1000 mA g−1) after 50 cycles” [8]. In contrast with the same-sized solid nanomaterials, porous hollow spheres can offer huge active area, abundant buffer space, and short ion diffusion pathways, to ameliorate the volume change during repeated Li+ insertion/extraction mechanisms; these mechanisms can efficiently foster the electrochemical reaction [8, 110, 111]. A facile and general hydrothermal technique to synthesize porous CuCo2O4 hollow spheres (PHS-CuCo2O4) is indicated by us without employing any templates [8]. The crucial step is one-pot to form porous CuCo2O4 hollow precursor spheres [8]. The porous CuCo2O4 hollow precursor spheres reshape into well-retained PHS-CuCo2O4 via a thermal annealing process in air [8]. Full cells were assembled employing the as-prepared PHS-CuCo2O4 and LiCoO2 as the cathode as the anode; this anode indicate a comparatively high capacity of 660 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles [8].

A critical factor for overall electrochemical performance; huge pore volumes, the porous structure of carbon material with high surface zones, and homogeneous pore sizes normally display greater lithiation capability and better cycling stability, which can shorten the Li+ ions transport path, accommodate the huge volume change, improve the electrode/electrolyte interface, and decide the contact between electrode and electrolyte solution, and enhance the interfacial lithium ion diffusion [112, 113] is the porosity of electrode materials [9]. The carbon material with spherical structure have been shown to be competent for employing as anode materials for Li-ion batteries, since spherical materials enjoy a high packing density, a low surface to maximal systemic stability, volume ratio, and ease to preparing electrode films [9, 114]. Developing new, which is carbon-based anode materials with porous and spherical structure as the host of the lithium insertion and transport, is imperative to enhance the performance of Li-ion batteries [9]. Studying a sustainable and cheap synthetic technique to prepare micropores spherical structure of carbon sphere as anode material for Li-ion batteries will enormously enhanced lithium ion storage, which is crucial to the structure design and modifier of carbon anode material application in Li-ion batteries in the future [9]. We report a carbon microsphere with highly prepared micropores by green and straightforward technique, which had been utilized to anode material of Li-ion batteries and indicate high discharge capacity and long cycle life at various current density in this work [9]. NCM and the RF-C were utilized to anode materials of Li-ion batteries, respectively, compared with RF-C; the lithium-ion storage capacity of NCM had been enormously enhanced because of their microporous structure; this structure indicates a high discharge capacity and excellent cycle performance at various current [9].

Fe3O4 has been viewed as an advanced alternative anode material for Li-ion batteries because of low cost and its high theoretical capacity among all the reports for MxOy [10]. There are many reports on that the quantum dots display enhanced electrochemical performance [10, 115]. The distinctive quantum dots have multiple merits for excellent cycling stability and high-rate capability in terms of electronic/ionic electrical conductivity, volume effect, specific surface area, and grain boundary defects [10, 116]. Much work till date has revolved around that the quantum dots dispersed on graphene display enhanced electrochemical performance [10]. Highly distributed Fe3O4 quantum dots on commercially readily available graphite nanoplates, which revealed high-rate capability (530 mAh g−1 at 5 A g−1) including a high cycling performance (960 mAh g−1 at 200 mA g−1 after 147 cycles) had been efficiently prepared by Su and others [10, 116]. The ultrafine Fe3O4 quantum dots on hybrid carbon nanosheets indicated by Liu showed an enhanced electrochemical performance [10, 117]. There are handful reports about combining 3D graphene aerogel and 0D quantum dots, the distinctive structure shown the efficacy of the synergetic effect between 3D GA to the lithium storage properties and the 0D Fe3O4 quantum dots [10]. It is a particular challenge to build a facile technique to prepare single-phase Fe3O4 quantum dots reasonably well dispersed on graphene foam matrix [10]. Fe3O4 quantum dots/graphene composite showed cycling stability (312 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 50 mA g−1) [118] and satisfactory sodium storage capacity (525 mAh g−1 at 30 mA g−1) in our group [10]. Benefitting from the Fe3O4 quantum size of 2–5 nm, the obtained Fe3O4 QDs/GA performs satisfactory behaviour properties on cyclic stability and rate capability [10].

Decades, transition metal oxides (TMOs) have been extensively examined as fruitful anodes for Li-ion batteries due to low cost and their high theoretical capacities [11]. Much attention has been paid to Fe-based ternary metal oxides as fruitful anodes for Li-ion batteries to enhance their cycleability [11]. It is anticipated that Fe-based ternary metal oxides as fruitful anodes for Li-ion batteries can efficiently circumvent the shortcomings of pure iron oxide anode; then bigger reversible capacity, better rate performance, and better cycleability, could be accomplished by the useful combination of various metal species (Yuan and others [119]), [11]. The use of ZnFe2O4 as anodes in Li-ion batteries for the first time (Li and others [120]) had been indicated by Li and others, and the initial reversible capacity had been 556 mAh g−1 and 78% of the capacity (434 mAh g−1) had been still preserved after 100 cycles [11]. An efficient way to enhance rate performance and the battery cycling by both improving the nanomaterial surface electronic electrical conductivity and minimizing the electrode/electrolyte interfacial side reaction (Zhang and others [121]; Lee and others [122]) is surface coating on TMO nanoparticles [11]. A new-generation carbon material, which not just possesses high electrical conductivity and the high surface area though can serve as a reliable matrix to load multiple metal oxides is Graphene [11]. It is supposed that the 3D network graphene composites as anode material can efficiently ameliorate the aggregation of metal oxides [11]. The enhancement of electrochemical performances could be attributable to the synergetic role of graphene and homogeneous carbon layer, which can hinder the volume expansion, enhance the electron transfer of the composites, and deter the pulverization/aggregation upon prolonged cycling [11].

In the variety 670–893 mAh g−1 have been indicated (Xiong and others [123]; Qi and others [124]; Huang and others [125]), CoO has received particular attention because of specific capacities and its high theoretical capacity (716 mAh g−1) [12]. Numerous efforts were made toward the synthesis of CoO that comprises octahedral nanocages (Guan and others [126]) and nanodisks (Sun and others [127, 128]) with enhanced capacities of 893 and 1118 mAh g−1, respectively since morphologically tailored nanostructured materials can provide distinctive properties [12]. Superior performance with specific capacities of 1592 mAh g−1 at 50 mA g−1 (Peng and others [129]) and ~1018 mAh g−1 at 500 mA g−1 (Sun and others [127, 128]) is demonstrated by CoO-graphene composites [12]. Zhou and others [130] have indicated specific capacity of 2223 F g−1 at a current density of 1 mA cm−2 from 3D CoO@polypyrrole nanowires (in 3 M NaOH electrolyte), while Wang and others [131] have detected a high specific capacity of 3282.2 F g−1 at 1 mA cm−2 (in 6 M KOH electrolyte) for a hybrid composite of conductive carbon and CoO [12]. Some researches are concentrated on mixed metal oxide composites including CoO@NiO and specific capacities in the variety of 145–840 F g−1 can be obtained (Gao and others [132]; Yang and others [133]) in order to solve the electrical conductivity issue of CoO and enhance capacitance [12]. Based on carbon-based composite materials, although gives rise to an enhancement of gravimetric capacitance of metal oxide supercapacitors, normally results in lower areal capacitance because of high volume to mass ratio of carbon (e.g., CNT, graphene, etc.) [12]. That by synthesizing 1D materials with useful morphology, high capacitance values could be derived from CoO (1167 F g−1 after 10,000 cycles at 5 A g−1 and areal capacitance of 728 mF cm−2) without the need to form with carbon or other metal oxides any composite and hence, enhancing both gravimetric and volumetric capacitance is demonstrated here by us [12].

Porous carbon materials have been devised as a fruitful electrode material for lithium batteries because of physicochemical properties [134, 135, 136, 137, 138] and the distinctive systemic elements among all carbon-based materials [13]. Template technique and activation technique were usually introduced to synthesize high surface area porous carbon materials [13, 139, 140, 141]. Lithium batteries delivered the electrochemical performance with specific charge capacities of 445 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and 370 mAh g−1 at 1 C [142] had been material-based by the carbon [13]. Porous carbon particles based on peanut shells, which shown reversible capacity of 480 mAh g−1 with high columbic efficiency of 98.9% after 20 cycles [143] were prepared by Cao and others [13]. One practical approach to additional enhance the electrochemical performance of the porous carbon-based anode is by controlling structure [46, 144, 145, 146] and morphology [13]. That the obtained porous carbon reaches the high reversible capacity of 660 mAh g−1 after 70 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g−1 [147] had been shown by Guo and others [13]. Nanostructured porous carbon materials with structure and characteristic morphology shown the enhanced electrochemical properties [13, 148, 149, 150]. The FPCMs highlight rate performance (378 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1) and the optimal cycle capacity (643 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1) whilst employing as anode materials of lithium batteries [13]. The link between morphology and structure of porous carbon and electrochemical performance of lithium batteries had been examined [13]. Possibilities of enhancing the lithium storage capacity of porous carbon materials by controlling both morphology and structure are provided by the results [13].

A wide range of materials have been exploited as anode materials for Li-ion batteries in the past decades, including silicon-based [151, 152, 153] or tin-based [154, 155, 156] materials, and transition-metal oxides [157, 158, 159]; these decades have ultra-high theoretical capacity [14]. Silver is an attractive option for anode materials, due to its comparatively high specific capacity; this capacity is attributable to the formation of numerous Ag–Li alloys (up to AgLi12) within a quite low voltage variety (0.25–0 V) [14, 160]. A common matrix for silver is carbon [14]. Shilpa and others utilized hollow carbon nanofibres as a buffer matrix and enmeshed silver nanoparticles in them via the coaxial electrospinning technique [14, 161]. Metal organic approaches (MOFs) have been attracting increased attention as carbon sources for anode materials because multiple kinds of MOF precursors can consequence in deduced carbon with allow innate doping of heteroatoms [162, 163, 164] and a homogeneous, controllable, porous structure [14]. A cage-like carbon/nano-Si composite as anode materials by the template technique to incorporate Si nanoparticles into ZIF-8 had been prepared by Song and others [14]. Porous nitrogen-doped carbon (PNCs@Gr) via the pyrolysis of zeolitic imidazolate conceptual framework nanoparticles grown in situ on GO (ZIF-8@GO), which showed outstanding electrochemical performance among carbonaceous materials utilized as anode materials [165], a sandwich-like had been fabricated by Xie and others, graphene-based [14]. Carbon, which is ZIF-8-derived, had been utilized by us as a matrix for silver nanoparticles (Ag nanoparticles); these nanoparticles can offer not just rigid matrices with nanopores, though also a comparatively high nitrogen content [14]. Once utilized as the anode material for the lithium ion battery, the Ag-NPC revealed excellent electrochemical performance over bare NPC; this NPC had been attributable to the carbon matrix and the synergetic effect of Ag nanoparticles [14].

Several carbon-doped anode materials with multiple structures have been devised to improve the electric conductivity [166, 167, 168, 169, 170] and to ameliorate tremendous volume variability during the process of Li+ insertion/extraction in recent decades [15]. Since they are quite environment-friendly and renewable, though offer a novel approach to prepare anode materials with distinctive nanostructures for improving performances [171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176], sustainability could be not just maintained by such materials [15]. Upon 60 cycles at the current density of 0.2 and 2 A g−1, which had been considerably greater than the theoretical capacity of graphite (372 mAh g−1), the lithium storage capacity of MnO/C nano-composites showed 610 and 350 mAh g−1 [15]. Through the approach of biotemplating method, which is based on Zhang, microalgaes and others, prepared MnO/C nano-composites; these nano-composites the enhanced lithium storage performance may be attributed to the porous hollow microsphere architecture [177] and released a relative high capacity of 700 at 100 mA g−1 after 50 cycles [15]. Through utilizing bacillus subtilis as templates, Kim and others synthesized Co3O4 nanorods with porous hollow nanostructure and it revealed high reversible capacity of 903 mAh g−1 after 20 cycles under the current density of 240 mA g−1 [15, 178]. A cheap and environment-friendly approach to prepare graphene (G)-Co/CoO shaddock, which is peel-derived carbon foam (SPDCF) hybrid as anode materials for Li-ion batteries, had been devised by us [15]. The carbonized porous shaddock peels can act as the supporting skeleton to accommodate the mechanical strain and keep elastic for Li+ insertion/extraction, which might enhance the cycle stability of the G-Co/CoO SPDCF substantially [15]. The devised approach to prepare the G-Co/CoO SPDCF with nanoflakes nanostructure based upon biological materials could be extended to the synthesis of other comparable materials for Li-ion batteries, supercapacitor, catalysis, etc. [15].

Nickel oxide (NiO) as an alternative anode material for Li-ion batteries has been extensively researched because of its high theoretical capacity (718 mAh g−1), non-toxicity and low cost [16]. Design and synthesis of nanoscaled NiO with distinctive structure, e.g., porous and hollow structures, in which free space can accommodate enhance Li-ion diffusion and the tremendous volume change including swiftly throughout the whole electrode during the lithiation/delithiation process is one efficient approach [16]. Owing to the distinctive porous architecture, enhanced electrochemical performance with good cycleability and high lithium storage capacity is shown by the porous NiO hollow microspheres [16]. Nanosphere electrode delivers a high capacity of 393 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles of charge-discharge at a rate of 0.3 C are hollowed by the NiO [16]. The satisfactory electrochemical behaviour of the NiO electrode, which is attributed to the nano-size effect coupled with the hollow void space of NiO nanospheres that can accommodate the volume transformations occurring during the conversion reactions and enhance faster Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation kinetics, is noted by they [16]. Previous studies have clearly suggested that controlled synthesis of NiO anode materials with porous hollow structures for Li-ion batteries had been the pursuing aim [16]. The controlled and facile synthesis of porous hollow NiO electrode materials based on nanoscaled Ni-MOF still encounters many issues and might have considerable interest in the field of materials science [16]. We report on synthesis of porous NiO hollow quasi-nanospheres employing a MOF as both the precursor and the self-sacrificing template [16]. The NiO electrode prepared from the porous NiO hollow quasi-nanospheres displays high reversible capacity, rate performance and satisfactory cycling stability when assessed as an anode material for Li-ion batteries [16].

The specific energy of traditional Li-ion batteries is not sufficient for these applications because of the restricted specific capacity of the traditional graphite anode (372 mAh g−1) [17]. Exploration of novel anode materials with greater capacity is one of the main research directions for Li-ion batteries (Poizot and others [179]; Ji and others [109]; Wang and others [180]; Manthiram and others [181]; Cheng and others [182]), [17]. Transition metal carbonates (TMCs) have been hot research concentrates in recent decades because of their facile synthesis, satisfactory electrochemical durabilities (Zhao and others [183]) and high specific capacities as a novel sort of readily available anode lithium storage materials [17]. That porous ZnCO3 nanoparticles (NPs) revealed an initial capacity of satisfactory rate ability and 735 mAh g−1 had been indicated by Zhang and others [17, 184]. There are handful reports about multi-metal carbonates utilized as anode materials for Li-ion batteries till now [17]. The TMCs could be as precursors of the synthesis of transition metal oxides (TMOs); to the optimal of our knowledge, the TMOs are emerging as fruitful anode materials because of their high capacities usually two or three times greater than those of traditional graphite-based electrodes (Poizot and others [179]; Reddy and others [185]), [17]. TMOs, Co3O4 indicates comparatively high capacity and is regarded as most potential candidate for Li-ion batteries (Wu and others [186]), [17]. Due to its satisfactory electronic electrical conductivity, easy electrolyte penetration (Cui and others [187]; Wei and others [188]) and low diffusion resistance to protons/cations, TMOs, ZnCo2O4 is regarded as one of the most fruitful electrode materials for Li-ion batteries application [17]. The as-prepared ZCO and ZCCO microspheres display satisfactory electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIB applications, suggesting that the electrochemical properties of ZCO might be linked to the electrochemical performance of ZCCO [17].

Owing to theoretical capacities [189] (>600 mAh g−1) and the high natural relative abundance, metal oxides (Co3O4 [190], Mn2O3 [191], ZnO [192], SnO2 [193], NiO [194]), are supposed to be the possible anode candidates for high-performance Li-ion batteries [18]. Zn2SnO4 (ZTO) retains distinctive properties of high theoretical irreversible capacity of 1231 mAh g−1, a wide band disparity of 3.6 eV and superior electron mobility of 10–15 cm2 V−1 s−1 [18]. Upon 200 cycles at 100 mA g−1, where monodispersed SnO2 nanoparticles existed within 3D linked carbon networks, by dexterously employing the porous structures and adsorption properties of MOFs [195], SnO2@CNT had been devised by Wang and others with a reversible capacity of 880 mAh g−1 [18]. A two-step calcining process to efficiently synthesize Sn@graphene-based nanosheets integrating of optimized nitrogen species had been devised by Zhong and others, and this anode delivered the discharge capacity of 890 mAh g−1 after continuous tests from 0.1 to 1 A−1 cycle at 100 mA g−1 [18, 196]. A greater capacity of 520 mAh, which is compared g−1 with the SnO2 nanoparticles failing totally after 100 cycles [197], had been shown by a SnO2–graphene nanocomposite [18]. Upon 50 cycles, the RGO/C/ZnO anode materials showed the reversible capacity of 600 mAh g−1, and this value had been much more than bare ZnO aggregates [18, 198]. Graphene-MWCNT demonstrates a specific capacity of 768 mAh g−1 at the current density of 100 mA g−1 after 100 cycles, which is 2.5 times superior to that of pure graphene [18, 199]. At the current density of 100 mA g−1, Ge/RGO establishes a specific capacity of 863.8 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles, though displays an inferior cycle life performance compared with Ge/RGO/CNT [200] without adding CNT [18].

A restricted theory capacity of 372 mAh g−1 [173, 201, 202], which substantially restricted the additional development had been demonstrated by Li-ion batteries with the commercial graphite as the anode material [20]. ZnO is a fascinating Li-ion batteries’ anode material among multiple anode materials, for its high theoretical capacity of 978 mAh g−1 [20, 203]. Recent work [204] synthesized the ZnO/graphene composites and utilized to prepare Li-ion batteries anode, which indicates a striking specific capacity of 870 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at the current density of 1 A g−1 and 713 mAh g−1 after the sequential 100 cycles at the current density of 2 A g−1 [20]. On the surface of ZnO nanoparticles with an mean diameter of ~50 nm [205], which indicates specific capacity of ~975 mAh g−1 at the current density of 40 mA g−1, an amorphous coating of carbon had been created [20]. Sucrose had been utilized as carbon precursor grants to improve the electrochemical performance of ZnO [206], displaying an initial discharge capacity of 1440 mAh g−1 with a reversible (charge) capacity of 1050 mAh g−1 at the current density of 50 mA g−1 [20]. ZIF-8 nanocrystals were pyrolyzed to prepare the anode material of Li-ion batteries demonstrating discharge capacity of 600 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles [20, 207]. That structure, which is dispersed not just reasonably well nano-ZnO though also enhanced the capacity of ZIF-8 [20]. Spherical ZnO@C nano-composites is poroused by the hybrid as anode materials for Li-ion batteries possessed superior electrochemical properties, including high specific capacity, fine cycle performance, and satisfactory rate capability; these properties have been validated in previous report [20, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212].

Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) have been intensively studied to satisfy the expanding power-supply requirements for a wide range of applications in mobile and portable communication tools, electric/hybrid vehicles due to the high energy density, durable power output [213, 214, 215, 216], and stable cycle life [21]. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been acknowledged as an alternative material to substitute the graphite electrodes in lithium batteries because of its high safety performance, low volume change, eco-friendliness [217, 218], and natural relative abundance [21]. Through the inferior Li ions and the aggregation tendency nanoparticles, electron transport, and the inherent low electrical conductivity, the practical electrochemical performance is still restricted [21]. It is an efficient strategy to improve the electrochemical performance by controlling the unidimensional morphologies, including nanofibres, nanowires, and nanotubes; these morphologies have the huge surface to volume ratio, excellent ion and electron electrical conductivity [219, 220, 221], and high surface area [21]. Low electronic electrical conductivity and the slow lithium-ion diffusion are still the principal obstacles for its practical application [21, 222]. Graphene (G) has aroused intensive attention due to its superior mechanical, electrical, chemical, and thermal, properties and is regarded as an optimal support for metal oxides (MO) as lithium ion battery electrodes [223, 224, 225, 226] as is known to all [21]. Some literatures have been indicated on graphene/TiO2 composite materials with excellent electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium-ion batteries because of the influential synergetic impacts [21, 227, 228, 229]. Upon the decrease of graphene oxide, the G/TiO2 composite nanofibres were finally obtained and utilized as an anode for lithium batteries with excellent high rate performance and the excellent rechargeable stability [21].

Transition metal cobalt-based compounds (Co(OH)2, Co3O4, CoN, CoS, CoP), etc. NiCo2O4, are an crucial class of fruitful materials due to their high theoretical capacity, adequate cycleability [230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236] and rich redox reaction among the wide range of anode materials examined [22]. The redox mechanism of the cobalt-based compounds versus lithium is based upon conversion reactions rather than intercalation reactions unlike traditional carbon negative electrodes [22]. The low electronic electrical conductivity of most of cobalt-based compounds is another inherent drawback [22]. Several indicators have been taken to ameliorate the two difficulties by designing nanostructured cobalt-based electrodes with heterogeneous morphologies (including nanoparticles [233], nanowires (NWs) [123], hollow spheres [237], nanoboxes [238], nanorods [239], nanosheets [240] and nanoplates [241], etc.) or by preparing them on high electric conductivity substrates (including graphene [242, 243], lowered graphene oxide [244, 245], carbon cloth [246], nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes [247] and Ni foam [248], etc.) [22]. It is the fact that the conversion reaction-based electrodes exhibit low initial columbic efficiency because of the incomplete conversion reaction, the irreversible stage transitions and the irreversible lithium deterioration, which is based on the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer [22, 186, 230]. There is a need for reviewing the recent progress in multiple cobalt-based compounds as anode materials [22]. That review focuses on the synthetic methodologies and the nanostructures of cobalt-based compounds and their corresponding performances in Li-ion batteries, and expects to give readers the guideline on how to circumvent the issues of huge volume change and inferior electric conductivity for these cobalt-based compounds [22].

Commercial anodes for Li-ion batteries are still graphite-based materials their restricted specific capacities are not sufficient for greater energy density with the rapid development of the modern society, and whose theoretical capacity is as low as 372 mAh g−1 [23]. Novel anode materials with greater capacity for LIB applications (Huang and others [249]; Manthiram and others [181]; Wang and others [180]; Ji and others [109]; Cheng and others [182]) must be examined by us [23]. That special S–Mo–S layered structure is favourable for Li-ion insertion/extraction during the discharge/charge process, whilst the previous reports show that MoS2 has many drawbacks (Xie and others [250]; Liao and others [251]), [23]. To solve this issue, the most efficient one is to combine MoS2 with materials which have satisfactory electrical conductivity, and fairly plenty of tactics are put forth [23]. Some conductive metals including Cu, Sn, and Co, are doped in MoS2 to help engender rapid electron transport and enhance the electrical conductivity of active materials [23]. A high theoretical capacity of 991 mAh g−1 is possessed by metallic tin (Sn) and has been regarded as the most fruitful anode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries (Hou and others [252]), [23]. Previous studies have discovered lately that MoS2 doped with Sn can substantially enhance the cycling performance during the lithiation/delithiation process (Li and others [253]), [23]. Once evaluated as anode material for Li-ion batteries, all the as-prepared Sn/MoS2 composites display both greater reversible capacity and better cycling performance, which is compared with the pure MoS2 [23]. That the doping of metal Sn can substantially enhance the electrochemical properties of MoS2 is revealed by the results [23].

There has been a greater requirement for lithium-ion batteries about energy density, the safety of the electrode materials [254, 255], and rate performance, with the development of multiple electronic mobile tools and the hybrid electric vehicles [24]. Graphite, as a prevailing commercial anode material for lithium-ion batteries, delivers a gravimetric capacity of 372 mAh g−1 and a volumetric capacity of 840 mAh cm−3, much from meeting the increased requirement of consumers [24, 256]. Bismuth’s layered crystal structure is facile to Li+ insertion/extraction during delithiation and lithiation process, making bismuth readily available as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries [24, 257, 258, 259, 260]. The astonishing volume transformations, which gives rise to expansion and pulverization of subsequently a serious capacity fade [261] and materials is the principal challenge of the metals and alloys directly utilized as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries [24]. With regard to the preceding accomplishments, heterogeneous graphene-based nano-composites, extensively examined as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, have showed enhanced electrochemical performance [24, 186, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266]. Co-workers and Yang showed Bi@C as anode materials for sodium/lithium-ion batteries, obtaining almost similar capacities [24, 260]. Graphene, comparable to other pure carbon materials, suffers from a huge irreversible capacity and rapid capacity fade during cycling, though nitrogen-doped graphene can circumvent these demerits and present enhanced electrochemical performance than the pristine graphene, which is because of the enhanced electric conductivity, more defects, intensive electrode/electrolyte wettability, and active sites for Li+ adsorption from nitrogen, which is incorporated [267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273], to the optimal of our knowledge [24]. It is quite possible to derive high performance electrode materials via combining the bismuth with the nitrogen-doped graphene [24]. We synthesized N-doped graphene/Bi nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries through a two-stage technique, combining the gas/liquid interface reaction with the rapid heat treatment technique [24].

The traditional graphite materials are much from being able to which additional hinder its applications in electric vehicles (EVs), fulfil the market requirement due to the inferior rate performance and its restricted theoretical capacity (372 mAh g−1) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with the extensive application of Li-ion batteries [25]. Spinel NiCo2O4 has been attracted considerable attention because of its high theoretical capacity (890 mAh g−1), low cost, eco-friendliness, abound resources [274, 275, 276], and high electronic electrical conductivity, among those of potential alternative anode materials [25]. The meager capacity retention and rate performance of the spinel NiCo2O4 inhibit spinel NiCo2O4’s practical application [25, 277, 278]. That the NiCo2O4 hollow microspheres with the distinctive high and porous specific surface can offer a short path for lithium ions and electrons in comparison with bulk materials, whose microstructure can give rise to satisfactory electrical conductivity and high ion diffusion rate had been shown by coworkers and Yu [25, 279]. Urchin-like NiCo2O4 nanostructures [280] have been followed by annealing, suggesting satisfactory cycleability and better rate property and synthesized through a solvothermal technique, which employs hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a soft template [25]. A facile microemulsion-assisted solvothermal route with the assistance of employing a mixture of cosurfactant (n-heptanol and n-heptane) as soft template and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to derive Ni-Co precursor, which are followed by annealing at 400 °C for 4 h to prepare urchin-like NiCo2O4 microspheres had been indicated by us [25]. That the NiCo2O4 microspheres will display better cycling stability and greater specific capacity is hoped by us [25].

The field of Li-ion batteries [281, 282] can offer a novel approach to solve the shortcomings existing in anode materials, including the huge volume change, meager cycling performance, and low electrical conductivity, by coating polymer film or the carbon layer on the surface of nanoparticles [27]. Several researches on the carbon-coated anode materials have been indicated in the scientific literature, and the reasons for the amelioration of the electrochemical performance of Li-ion batteries have been described from the point of view of the SEI film [27, 283, 284]. That the carbon coating can buffer the volume change, improve the stability of the electrode, enhance the electronic electrical conductivity, and deter the SEI layer from breaking during cycling even at a high rate is shown by all the results [27]. Choi and others coated a thin layer of polymer film efficiently on the lithium electrode surface by ultraviolet radiation technology and observed that the SEI film on lithium electrode surface with a protective film is considerably denser than that without one; the battery with a protective film has a greater discharge capacity and better cycling performance [27, 285]. On the impacts of polymer shell on the SEI film and the mechanism of how the polymer shell can enhance the electrochemical performance of Li-ion batteries and the stability of SEI films is lack of understanding, handful researches indicated even though the electrochemical performance of anode materials is can efficiently enhanced by the polymer shell [27]. The examination of the role of the polymer shell in the formation of SEI film is of paramount importance for additional amelioration of the performance of Li-ion batteries, which comprises high energy density, safety, cycle performance, and so on [27].

In voltage areas exceeded the stability window of the electrolytes, most kinds of lithium-ion batteries are operated, and they present a potential safety hazard; this hazard limits the voltage variety [28]. Through the formation of a homogenous and stable electron-insulating solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the anode, additional electrolyte break-down and critical degradation processes could be precluded [28]. The composition and structure of SEIs formed on the anode material, i.e., graphite, which is utilized most frequently, have previously been researched intensively [28, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293]. Several alternative anode materials were outlined to satisfy the requirement for safety [294], which is increasing, and greater capacities [28]. It is indispensable to better comprehend SEI formation to enhance capacity retention and longevity and to maximize alloy anodes [28]. Lithium titanate (LTO) anodes still indicate serious gassing when they come into titanium oxides (TiO2, Li4Ti5O12) particularly with the electrolyte, which results in film formation and battery swelling on the anode surface [28]. Stable SEI layers are replied to be efficient in suppressing additional electrolyte decomposition [295] to lessen gassing of LTO-based batteries [28]. Upon the first cycle, the formation of SEI layers, which is formed on LTO and silicon anodes, had been examined by us [28]. That the overall resistance of the silicon anodes substantially declined in the second cycle, suggesting the formation of a stable SEI had been founded by us [28]. That is in contrast to the LTO anodes, where the overall resistance increasing by a factor of two under comparable conditions, implying that SEI formation would not have been full after the first cycle [28].

Through ultimately results in the inferior cycling performance and a volume increase of 300% [296], which gives rise to the pulverization of electrode material, the silicon alloy electrode, which is lithiated completely, is accompanied [29]. Carbon-based composites could be utilized as buffer matrix material to enhance the electrode cycle performance [29, 297, 298]. The decrease of electrolyte caused in the surface film formation as a solid electrolyte intermediate stage (SEI) on the anode surface [299, 300] in the case of silicon-carbon composite at lower anodic potential [29]. “The stability of the SEI film is critical to the long cycle life of the silicon-carbon anode” [29]. Some film-forming additives [301, 302] could be utilized to lessen the irreversible capacity deterioration and enhance the cycle life by changing the surface film composition [29]. The participation of additives can change at electrode surface to enhance the stability of SEI film [29]. Numbers of work have been indicated that the cycle performance of silicon anodes is increasing by introducing the FEC into the electrolyte solution [29]. The FEC can form a common SEI on the silicon electrode to restrain the occurrence of huge fissures to enhance the cycle performance [29, 303]. That surface analysis of FTIR demonstrates and silicon electrodes by XPS that an electrolyte containing LiF, LixSiOy in the SEI, and an insoluble polymeric species, had been indicated by Nie and others [29, 304]. There is no thorough comparative investigation of the quantity of the FEC as an additive, which is utilized for silicon-carbon composite anodes [29]. A thorough investigation of the impacts of SEI composition of silicon-carbon anodes and various quantity of FEC on cycling performance is indicated by us [29].

“Part of electrolyte will decompose to form a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film on graphite electrode during the first intercalation of lithium ions into the graphite electrode” [30]. The formation of the SEI film gives rise to an irreversible capacity deterioration of the first discharge/charge cycle of the lithium-ion batteries and capacity fading might progressively take place with the thickening of SEI film in the subsequent cycles [30, 289]. In the electrolyte, adding additives is one of the most effective techniques to affect the properties of the SEI films and then to enhance the performance of lithium-ion batteries [30, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309]. The SEI film, which is formed before the intercalation of lithium ions, is rich in inorganic elements and unstable [30]. The reduction-type additives, with greater reductive potentials than that of the electrolyte solvents, are lowered to form an insoluble solid film before the electrolyte solvents decomposes [30]. We indicated the use of tea polyphenols (TP) as a reaction-type additive in electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries [30]. The aim of this research had been to examine the effect and reaction mechanism of TP employing as an electrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries [30]. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS), which is one of the most potent devices to examine electrochemical mechanisms taking place at electrode/electrolyte interfaces [310, 311, 312, 313], had been utilized to elaborate the film-forming properties of graphite electrode in the TP-containing electrolyte [30]. That the introduction of TP can efficiently enhance the capacity and cyclic stability of the graphite electrode by forming a thin, compact and smooth SEI film and scavenging less stable radical anions had been demonstrated by the results [30].

Tin, a comparatively inexpensive and plentiful material with high theoretical capacity is one alternative anode material [31]. Several researches have been concentrated on high-capacity oxide, which is Sn-based, materials such as SnO2, their composites and SnO, particularly with carbon [31, 314, 315]. The enhanced cycleability of the tin oxide-based materials could be described via their lithiation mechanism [31]. Composites with carbon-based materials [316], particularly with graphene [317], are commonly used for enhancing the cycleability of the tin oxide-based anodes [31]. It is required to employ high potentials (20–40 V) and thereafter the formed tin oxide powders should be annealed in air at 700 °C for obtaining the crystalline structure of the [318] oxide in order to derive tin oxide under direct current conditions [31]. The use of sinusoidal alternating current can substantially accelerate the process of tin oxide formation [31]. Pulse alternating currents, on the other hand, offer novel opportunities for the synthesis of highly dispersed metal oxides because of the non-equilibrium conditions of electrolysis [31]. The rate of oxidation and dispersion of the metal under the impact of an alternating current is greater than the rate of anodic oxidation under direct current [31, 319]. The technique of pulsed alternating current for the synthesis of electrochemically active nanomaterials had been efficiently utilized in our previous researches [31, 320, 321, 322]. The technique of alternating current had been utilized for the synthesis of NiO nanoparticles; these nanoparticles were evaluated as active materials for hybrid supercapacitors [31, 322]. Under alternating pulse current as a new strategy for the synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles, we utilized the technique of dispersion of tin and electrochemical oxidation [31].

Owing to its advantages including flat and low potentials (<0.25 V vs. Li+/Li), stable cycling performance, and low expenses, graphite has been utilized as the overwhelming vast majority of negative electrodes since the commercialization of lithium-ion batteries [32]. Traditional carbonate-based electrolytes comprising of ethylene carbonate (1,3-dioxa-cyclopentan-2-one, EC), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), and other linear carbonate mixed solvents are usually introduced as lithium-ion conductor between anode and cathode to match graphite-based lithium-ion batteries [32]. Due to its high melting point, low ionic electrical conductivity at low temperature [323], and high viscosity, utilization of EC is accompanied with numerous shortcomings to the low-temperature performance of Li-ion batteries [32]. At low temperature, which limits the power and capacity of the batteries [324, 325, 326], the SEI film, which is formed with EC, indicates low Li+ electrical conductivity [32]. Adding low melting point cosolvent is one of the most efficient methodologies to improve the low-temperature performance of the lithium-ion batteries with traditional carbonate-based electrolytes [32, 327]. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) previously indicated that numerous battery models employing their Gen 3 low-temperature electrolyte, which is the mixture of ester cosolvents and traditional carbonate-based electrolytes, revealed outstanding low-temperature performances [32, 328, 329, 330]. His coworkers and K. A. Smith asserted that fluorinated aliphatic carboxylate is one of the most fruitful cosolvent for low-temperature electrolyte [329] in these reports [32]. K. A. Smith and his co-workers’ results indicated that these cosolvents are contributing to the enhanced performance of batteries and engaged to formation and properties of the SEI on graphite electrode [32]. The SEI on graphite electrode in numerous traditional carbonate-based electrolytes has been researched by numerous scholars during the 1990s [32, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336]. Through mixing traditional carbonate-based electrolyte and the three RCOOCH2CF3 cosolvents, three modified electrolytes are obtained, respectively [32].

In lithium-ion batteries, carbon materials of morphologies and various types are utilized as anodes, primarily because of satisfactory cycling performance [337] and their plausible theoretical capacity (372 mAh g−1) [33]. Research towards a more effective material in regard to storage capacity is still on-going [33]. There is a need to come up with a more stable and cheaper anode material [33, 185]. Silicon, because of its high theoretical capacity of about 4200 mAh g−1 is regarded as a replacement for graphite anodes in energy storage tools [33]. That pulverization process gives rise to contact deterioration of anode materials, resulting in capacity fading [33]. The silicon oxide nanostructures were evaluated as an alternative anode material for Li-ion batteries [33, 338, 339, 340, 341]. A high theoretical capacity of about 1965 mAh g−1 is shown by Silica as an anode material and is known to undergo faradaic mechanisms in the presence of lithium ions at an enough high cathodic potential [33]. A various mechanism with parallel lithium oxide creation [342] and irreversible silicate formation: Above electrochemical reactions of SiO2 could be the source of a high theoretical capacity, substantially greater than the capacity of LiC6 [341] had been devised by Guo, [33]. We revealed that under lithiation reversible, reactions took place on an anode material, which is derived from high temperature reconfiguration of sea water diatoms [33]. The evaluated material had been a composite of silica and the carbonaceous part [33]. All material from red algae had been chemically discarded and just the part, which comes from diatoms, has been utilized for anode preparation [33]. Electrochemical performance of silica anodes, of diatomic origin, has been investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) [33].

In contrast with nickel-hydrogen and nickel-cadmium batteries, lithium-ion battery has more advantages, including high voltage, high specific energy, security, no pollution, no memory effect, long cycle life [343] and little self-discharge rate [34]. It is difficult for graphite anode to satisfy the need of high energy storage tools [34]. Silicon is regarded as fruitful alternative anode material because of its high capacity (4200 mAh g−1) [34, 344]. The research of silicon-based anode materials is primarily concentrated on increased electrical conductivity [345] and reducing volume effect [34]. The rational design of a wide range of composite electrodes, including Si/carbon [346] and Si/metal [347] composite electrodes can accommodate the serious volume expansion [34]. In environment-friendly energy storage and light-weight tools [348, 349], electronically conducting polymers are commonly used [34]. The theoretical capacity of conducting polymer ranges from roughly 100 to 140 mAh g−1 [350, 351], and the thin layers of these materials could be oxidized and lowered with a quite high rate [34, 352, 353]. Since the polyaniline shell accommodates the huge volume expansion and shrinkage of Si core during the extraction and lithium intercalation process, which fosters the contact of electrode materials [354], the Si/polyaniline core/shell composite anode exhibits reasonably well cycling stability [34]. The polypyrrole nanofiber is favourable for gathering and facile charge delivery, whilst the porosity of the electrode can effectively cushion the volume expansion of Si [34]. Polythiophene-coated nano-silicon (Si/PTh), which employs composite in situ oxidation polymerization technique, had been prepared by us [34]. The Si/PTh composite electrode revealed satisfactory cycling performance and high capacity [34].

Graphite is the most frequent anode material for lithium-ion batteries because of next-generation electric vehicles’ low cost, durability, and availability, though the practical capacity of graphite has a theoretical restrict of 372 mAh g−1 [35]. Tin in particular has a theoretical capacity of 994 mAh g−1 and has been examined as one of the most fruitful prospective next-generation anode materials [35, 355]. The research and development of electrodeposited tin materials have been the principal focus since tin layers could be formed on copper current collectors by plating [35]. The dealloying and alloying reactions consequence in a tremendous volume change and eventual pulverization of the active tin material, leading to isolation of the tin from the copper current collector during charge-discharge cycling, which generates inferior cycleability [35]. Additionally improvements of both the practical specific capacity and the cycleability of tin-based anodes, including the development of practical fabrication mechanisms, are still needed [35]. Li and others have indicated that a Sn/CNTs composite film, which electrodeposition displays formed, enhanced first charge and discharge capacities compared with a tin film, even though the capacity decreases with increased cycle number [35, 356]. Through fibrous objects including the CNTs might potentially be efficient, an anode structure in which the adhesion strength between the copper layer and the tin layer are bolstered in order to improve the cycleability of tin active material layers [35]. A CNT-reinforced noble tin anode structure in which the CNTs fasten the copper underlayer and the tin active material layer had been generated employing a plating method, and the electrochemical attributes of the resulting noble anode were assessed [35].

Due to its outstanding capacity performance, excellent safety performance, and cost advantage, the requirement for lithium-ion batteries with power density and a high energy density in electric vehicle (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEVs) is roaring up [36]. Much attention has been paid on the search for high capacity, safe, and price-competitive, electrode materials [357, 358, 359, 360] since the holistic advantage of lithium-ion batteries primarily rests on its electrode materials [36]. The studies on anode materials are centred whilst the examination on cathode materials focuses on Li–M–O (M = Co, Ni, Mn), LiMPO4 (M = Co, Fe), and ASP materials [361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366], etc. on carbon materials, alloy materials and transition-metal oxides, in recent decades [36]. The spinel LiMn2O4, as lithium-ion battery cathode material, has difficulties including serious capacity decay and meager cycling, particularly at temperature [367, 368, 369, 370], which is elevated [36]. The principal approach for the novel stable LiMn2O4 materials is to restrain Mn break-up [36]. TiN coating can improve the performance of silicon nanoparticles as a lithium-ion battery anode [371], TiN had been observed to be helpful for enhancing the rate capability and long cycle stability of Li4Ti5O12 [372] and lithium iron phosphate thin films [373], and TiO2@TiN composite nanowires on carbon cloth revealed striking rate capability for flexible lithium-ion batteries [36, 374]. TiN had been utilized as an additive to enhance the performance of LiMn2O4/Li battery with 1 M LiPF6 in EC/DMC (1:1, v/v) [36]. In contrast to pristine LiMn2O4, LiMn2O4 with TiN additive revealed also better rate capability and excellent cycling stability though not just greater specific capacity [36]. The impacts of TiN on the amelioration of cycle life of the LiMn2O4/Li battery were examined [36].

Advances have been made on multiple facets of the cathode materials, including a drive towards bigger working potential (spinel-type LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 [375, 376] and LiCoMnO4 [377], olivine-type LiNiPO4 [378]), including cathode capacity (Li-S [379, 380, 381, 382], Li-Air [383, 384, 385] batteries), which is increasing substantially [38]. Notwithstanding some advantages, the use of graphite electrode has proven difficult due to its low specific capacity (theoretical 372 mAh g−1), low lithiation potential that can give rise to lithium dendrite growth, and low rate capability, on the anode side [38]. Materials with greater lithium storage capability, lower cost are required, and safer operation, were anoded by Novel [38]. Tin oxides (SnO, SnO2) and Tin (Sn) are a family of potential high-capacity anode materials [314, 386, 387, 388], which is investigated extensively [38]. Sn has a volumetric capacity (2020 mAh cm−3) similar to that of Si (2400 mAh cm−3) [38, 389]. Capacity retention is still one of the largest hurdles; these hurdles impedes the commercialization of Sn-based materials [38]. A tire-derived carbon (TC) anode has been shown as a fruitful application for a recycled tire product, which haves greater capacity and considerably lower cost than those of commercial graphite [38, 390, 391, 392]. Larger capacity is required from this kind of anode material to be more appealing [38]. An easy process for a cheap is indicated by us, high-capacity LIB anode made employing tin oxide (TC/SnO) and a TC composite [38]. The carbon, which is based on waste tires, functioned as the absorbing matrix; this matrix efficiently mitigated the degradation of the electrode and the volume change [38]. Upon 300 cycles at a current density of 40 mA g−1, this TC/SnO anode kept a capacity of 690 mAh g−1 [38].

In roll-to-roll mechanisms where a slurry of active material, binder, and conductive additives, are cast onto a conductive substrate, including copper, and dried, Standard LIB anodes are fabricated [39]. The majority of LIB anodes nowadays employ multiple modes of carbon as an active material, most frequently graphitic carbon; these modes have a theoretical capacity of 372 mAh g−1 [39]. A new technique that employs a facile in situ infiltration method with an aqueous infiltration solution, which includes silicon and binder nanoparticles, is examined by the present study to fabricate silicon anodes [39]. The anodes fabricated through this method might provide similar cycling performance compared to other silicon-containing anodes if refined and enhanced [39]. The through-plane electrical conductivity of the CNT mat is on the identical order as that of carbon black [393] and this winding process has been the object of numerous researches; these researches infiltrate or coat the CNTs with multiple active materials [394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399] or resin [39]. A new binder for the anode, hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) is examined by the current study [39]. Prior work [400, 401, 402] on native guar gum observed that it is an efficient binder in LIB anodes whilst its cost is on the present study identical order of magnitude, if not less this study’s, of traditional binders including carboxymethylcellulose and polyvinylidene difluoride [39]. Several researches have demonstrated that native guar gum is also capable of conducting lithium ions with a maximal electrical conductivity of 2.2 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 303 K [39, 403].

Si-premised materials have been extensively viewed as fruitful negative electrodes for their high specific capacity, low cost [345, 404, 405] and proper lithiation/delithiation voltage [40]. Reports, constructing stable structure for Si particles had been considered to accommodate the tremendous volume expansion and shrinkage during the charge-discharge process [40]. A convenient and straightforward technique to construct systemic stable Si-premised anode materials with high performance is quite required [40]. Powders prepared by spray-drying can display more stable structure, which provides numerous advantages, including a better electrochemical performance [406, 407] with the other techniques [40]. A new spray, which drys-technology to prepare Si/CNTs@C composite, is devised by us [40]. Both carbon and CNTs were utilized to sustain the structure and make up for the low electronic electrical conductivity of silicon [40]. The obtained composite Si/CNTs@C had been preliminarily researched in regard of systemic, electrochemical, and morphological, properties [40].

Organosilane-based compounds have been indicated as electrolyte solvents for lithium-ion batteries due to their distinctive properties, including nonflammable, biocompatible, nonvolatile, and thermally and electrochemically stable [41, 408, 409, 410]. Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2/Li4Ti5O12 complete cell are incompatible with graphite anode even with VC as a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film-forming additive, resulting in a continuing decomposition reaction of the electrolyte solvent on graphite anode [41]. The commercial electrolyte solvents include esters and organic carbonates, among which ethylene carbonate (EC) is an essential element due to its SEI film-forming capability on graphite anode [41, 411]. The utilization of organosilane compounds as SEI film-forming additive, including polyether-functionalized disiloxanes [412], vinyl tris-2-methoxyethoxysilane [413], phenyl tris-2-methoxydiethoxysilane [414], for the PC-based electrolyte has been shown [415], where PC is utilized as the principal electrolyte solvent for graphite anode [41]. That the compatibility issue of the TMSM2 electrolyte solvent with graphite anode could be resolved by employing PC as an additive/co-solvent had been indicated by us [41]. A highly effective performance of graphite/Li cells in enhancing the discharge capacity retention and in increased the initial columbic efficiency have been obtained in the electrolyte of 1 M LiPF6 in the dichotomous solvent of PC (TMSM2: PC = 9:1, by vol) and TMSM2 [41].

That a PC-based electrolyte solution with a high lithium salt content showed reversible lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation because of the decline in the PC-solvation number of the lithium ions [416, 417] had been indicated by us [43]. That the solvation structure of PC-solvated lithium ions is inhibition of co-intercalation reactions and a significant factor in the formation of an efficient SEI had been revealed by this consequence [43]. That the addition of calcium ions as a Lewis acid to a PC-based electrolyte solution fostered the intercalation/de-intercalation of lithium ions [418, 419] had been indicated by us [43]. Influenced by these results, we turned our focus to employing a Lewis base in the electrolyte solution as a means to control the solvation structure of PC-solvated lithium ions [43]. Counter anion and the cosolvent are regarded as the Lewis bases in the PC-based electrolyte solution [43]. “Lithium ions form aggregates with counter anions in electrolyte solutions [43, 420, 421, 422, 423].” It is possible that the formation of an efficient SEI between electrolyte solution and the graphite negative electrode might be fostered by exploiting the Lewis basicity of the counter and cosolvent anion in the system [43]. We concentrated on the Lewis basicity of the counter and cosolvent anion in a PC-based electrolyte solution [43]. We have previously indicated that reversible intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions occurs in PC-based electrolyte solutions upon addition of diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diglyme); this place displays stronger Lewis basicity than PC [43, 424]. Through adding various glymes, the effect of the Lewis basicity of the solvent in a PC-based electrolyte solution had been examined, and the effect of the Lewis basicity of the counter anion had been examined employing various lithium salts [43].

Due to the enormous volume change of Si during repeated charge-discharge cycles [425, 426, 427], the cycle lives of Si anodes do not normally satisfy the commercial standards [44]. A wide range of nanostructured Si materials have been introduced, as the nanometre facets can efficiently release the strain constructed during the volume expansion of Si in an effort to tackle the above-mentioned problems linked to the volume expansion [44]. They suffer from low tap densities and are more liable to undesired surface reactions because of the huge surface-to-volume ratios [152, 428] even though these nanostructured Si shown enhanced cycling performance to considerable extents [44]. It is desired to build Si microparticles in which internal nanostructures are enmeshed [44]. Since their particle sizes are in the micrometer variety whilst the wall thicknesses of pores are in the nanometre variety, microporous or meso-Si materials are well-aligned to this design consideration [44]. Has been lately shown as an excellent LIB anode material, exclusive use of SiRH leaves a disparity before immediate commercial adoption while mesoporous Si originating from rice husk SiO2, namely SiRH [44]. Since unavoidable volume expansion of SiRH is still huge in such a way that the electrode swelling and charge-discharge reversibility are not as controllable as those of current graphite counterparts [44]. The current study is supposed to serve as a helpful ground in developing high capacity LIB anodes incorporating Si materials, with considerable potential towards commercialization from the perspectives of resource scalability and volumetric energy density [44].

Relatively high energy density, long lifespan, light design, and low environmental influence in comparison with other battery systems including nickel-cadmium (NiCd), nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) could be provided by lithium-ion batteries [45]. The issue with carbonaceous electrode materials is that they are not useful for next-generation lithium-ion batteries, electric vehicles [429] and that is, smart electrical grid systems [45]. These a lithium ion battery is constructed from a transition metal oxide cathode material and graphite anode material [45]. In the first step, which lithium-tin alloy in the second step followed, the electrochemical reaction of lithium and tin ions offers metallic lithium and tin oxide: Metallic tin formation in reaction triggers volume transformations for tin oxide-based electrodes as it is detected for pure metallic tin [45]. Through modification of the tin oxide electrode material in terms of structure and morphology, this issue might be circumvented [45]. The hydrothermal process is commonly used, particularly when tin oxide nanoparticles are attached to carbon materials [317, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434] among those techniques [45]. It exemplified and revealed that a porous carbon matrix acts as a buffer for volume expansion/shrinkage for tin and tin oxide-based electrode materials [45, 435]. Carbon is quite important in terms of employing carbon as a buffer in preventing electric contact deterioration of the tin negative electrode with the current collector [45, 284]. That review is revolved around the modification of tin oxide-carbon negative electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries [45]. I wished to indicate the tactics utilized to enhance battery performance by incorporation of tin oxide into the carbonaceous matrix as a negative electrode in energy conversion applications and energy storage [45].

1.2 Graphene, Anode Materials, Lithium Storage, Current Density, Reversible Capacity, Pore, Nanoparticles

1.2.1 NiO/CNTs Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as Superior Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries [1]

That the introduction of CNTs can enhance the lithium-ion storage performance of NiO/CNT composites is demonstrated by the results [1]. That NiO/CNT composites are appealing as potential anodes for Li-ion batteries is demonstrated by the results [1]. At 100 mA g−1, NiO/CNTs-10 shows the highest reversible capacity of 812 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles [1]. The excellent electrochemical performance of NiO/CNT composites must be attributable to the formation of 3D conductive network structure with porous NiO microspheres connected by CNTs; this CNTs benefits the buffering of the volume expansion during the cycling process and the electron transfer ability [1]. Reveal performance, which is satisfied, is based on MOFs always by the TMOs and have been extensively utilized in catalysis [436, 437], biomedicine [438], supercapacitors [439, 440], etc. Li-ion batteries [441, 442], because of high surface zones and their hierarchical structures [1]. That NiO/CNT composites display excellent cycling stability and high specific capacity primarily because of the synergetic effect between NiO and CNTs including the 3D network porous structure is confirmed by the results [1].

1.2.2 Intergrown SnO2–TiO2@Graphene Ternary Composite as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes [2]

The obtained composite reveals a distinctive structure and high surface zones, in which both TiO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles are reasonably well grown on the surface of graphene [2]. The electrochemical tests suggest that as-prepared SnO2–TiO2@graphene composite displays a high capacity of 1276 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at the current density of 200 mA g−1 [2]. The specific capacity of 611 mAh g−1 at an ultra-high current density of 2000 mA g−1, which is superior to those of the indicated SnO2/graphene and SnO2 hybrids is kept by the composite [2]. The striking electrochemical performance of ternary SnO2–TiO2@graphene composites is primarily attributable to high surface zones, their distinctive nanostructure, and the synergetic effect not just between graphene and metal oxides though also between the intergrown SnO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles [2].

1.2.3 Carbon and Few-Layer MoS2 Nanosheets Co-modified TiO2 Nanosheets with Enhanced Electrochemical Properties for Lithium Storage [3]

Few-layer and carbon MoS2 nanosheets co-modified TiO2 nano-composites (conceptualized as MoS2-C@TiO2) were prepared via a facile single-step pyrolysis reaction method [3]. The TiO2 nanosheets with stable structure serve as the backbones, and carbon coating and few-layer MoS2 tightly conform onto the surface of the TiO2 in this distinctive nanostructure [3]. The TiO2 needs to be noted that the carbon coating enhances the overall electronic electrical conductivity and the few-layer MoS2 fosters the diffusion of lithium ions and provides more active sites for lithium-ion storage [3].

1.2.4 Preparation of Co3O4 Hollow Microsphere/Graphene/Carbon Nanotube Flexible Film as a Binder-Free Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries [4]

Following a subsequent process, which is treated thermally, and a facile filtration approach, a flexible Co3O4 hollow microsphere/graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid film is efficiently prepared [4]. Following the morphology characterizations on the hybrid film, the Co3O4 hollow microspheres are homogeneously and closely attached on 3-D (3D) graphene/carbon nanotubes (GR/CNTs) network; this network decreases the agglomeration of Co3O4 microspheres efficiently [4]. Following the CV results, the electrochemical reaction between Co3O4 and Li+ could be expressed as follows [55]: in the CV curves, it is notable that after the first cycle, the CV curves of the subsequent 4 cycles were not coincident [4]. The 3D GR/CNT network which improves prevents aggregation including conductance is a profit to help Co3O4 to exert its lithium storage capacities enough in this hybrid film [4].

1.2.5 In Situ Growth of Ultrashort Rice-Like CuO Nanorods Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheets and Their Lithium Storage Performance [5]

A facile refluxing approach in aqueous solution had been involved to synthesize ultra-short rice-like CuO nanorods/reduced graphene oxide (CuO-NRs/rGO) composite [5]. A facile refluxing approach had been utilized to synthesize ultra-short rice-like CuO-NRs/rGO composite [5]. The consequence of the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates that the as-synthesized rice-like CuO nanorods have a homogeneous size of about 8 nm in width and 28 nm in length and are homogeneously dispersed on rGO nanosheets [5]. Through the graphene nanosheets lowered from GO, the CuO nanorods are homogeneously dispersed and immobilized [5].

1.2.6 A Facile Synthesis of Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Framework Anchored with TiO2 Nanoparticles for High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes [6]

We present a facile approach to synthesize N/S dual-doping carbon conceptual framework, which is anchored with TiO2 nanoparticles (NSC@TiO2) as Li-ion batteries anode, to circumvent these shortcomings [6]. The as-obtained NSC@TiO2 electrode displays a high specific capacity of 250 mAh g−1 with a columbic efficiency of 99% after 500 cycles at excellent rate performance and 200 mA g−1, suggesting its fruitful as anode material for Li-ion batteries [6]. At 1350 and 1580 cm−1, two distinctive peaks could be detected, corresponding to the D and G band, respectively [6]. The plateaus still could be observed, representing a reasonably well partial reversibility of the reaction after 200 cycles [6].

1.2.7 Dandelion-Like Mesoporous Co3O4 as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries [7]

A dandelion-like mesoporous Co3O4 had been fabricated and utilized as anode materials of Li-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) [7]. Electrochemical experiments exemplified that the as-prepared dandelion-like mesoporous Co3O4 as anode materials of Li-ion batteries showed high reversible specific capacity of 1013.4 mAh g−1 and 1430.0 mAh g−1 at the current density of 0.2 A g−1 for the 100th and first cycle, respectively [7]. Its high-rate capability including the enhanced capacity made the as-prepared dandelion-like mesoporous Co3O4 to be a satisfactory candidate as a high-performance anode material for Li-ion batteries [7]. It could be detected that the precursor looked like dandelion and consisted of several irregular nanoneedles with length and diameter, which ranges from 2 to 10 μm, ranging from 30 to 50 nm [7]. The discharge capacities of 1st of 1427.9 mAh g−1, 2nd of 1025.5 mAh g−1, and 100th of 1013.4 mAh g−1 were all greater than the theoretical capacity of Co3O4 (890 mAh g−1) as can be detected [7]. A high charge specific capacity of 1013.4 mAh g−1 at 0.2 A g−1 with considerable capacity retention can be detected after 100 cycles, as reasonably well [7]. At 2.13 V, an oxidation peak can be detected, arising from the reversible oxidation reaction of Co to Co3O4 [7, 137].

1.2.8 Template-Free Fabrication of Porous CuCo2O4 Hollow Spheres and Their Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries [8]

Once utilized in Li-ion batteries, the porous CuCo2O4 hollow spheres indicate excellent lithium storage performance; this performance can deliver a high specific capacity of 930 mAh g−1 after 150 cycles for 660 mAh g−1 and half-cell after 50 cycles for complete cell [8]. The satisfactory electrochemical properties of the as-synthesized porous CuCo2O4 hollow spheres could be attributable to their distinctive porous structure, which is beneficial for alleviating the systemic stress of volume change and shorting lithium ion-electron transmission path [8]. Full cells and the better electrochemical performance in both half suggest that the PHS-CuCo2O4 might have a potential application as electrode for Li-ion batteries in the future [8]. Both the TEM and SEM results suggest that the as-synthesized PHS-CuCo2O4 have a hierarchical porous hollow nanostructure [8]. It could be observed from the curve that the octahedral Cu2+ at 933.6 eV is evidently predominant because this structure is more energetically stable [8, 446, 447]. In the subsample [448, 449], the consequence suggests the existence of Co3+ and mixed Co2+ [8]. The consequence suggests the stable cycling performance of PHS-CuCo2O4 [8]. It could be detected that the cycling performance of the two electrodes displayed differently [8]. That the PHS-CuCo2O4 could be utilized as a fruitful anode material for Li-ion batteries is thought by us [8].

1.2.9 Nanoporous Carbon Microspheres as Anode Material for Enhanced Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries [9]

In contrast with the NCMs with porous structure, RFs carbon microspheres (RF-C), after activating with hot CO2 and high BET surface area of 2798.8 m2 g−1; this g−1 offers plentiful lithium-ion storage site including stable lithium-ion transport channel [9]. The porous spherical structure of NCM retains markedly lithium-ion storage capability; this capability displays high discharge capacity and excellent cycling stability at various current density [9]. The CO2 activating carbonaceous materials utilized in anode materials can enormously improve the capacity storage; this storage offers a fruitful modification approach to enhance the storage capacity and cyclic stability of carbonaceous anode materials for Li-ion batteries [9]. Studying a sustainable and cheap synthetic technique to prepare micropores spherical structure of carbon sphere as anode material for Li-ion batteries will enormously enhanced lithium ion storage, which is crucial to the structure design and modifier of carbon anode material application in Li-ion batteries in the future [9]. More and more carbonized materials are utilized to Li-ion batteries, it will be viewed as a fruitful stratagem to enhance the electrochemical performance of carbonaceous anode material application in Li-ion batteries in the future [9].

1.2.10 Fe3O4 Quantum Dots on 3D-Framed Graphene Aerogel as an Advanced Anode Material in Lithium-Ion Batteries [10]

Fe3O4 quantum dots/graphene aerogel materials (Fe3O4 QDs/GA) were derived from a facile hydrothermal approach, followed by a subsequently heat treatment process were fabricated by 3-D [10]. The Fe3O4 QDs (2–5 nm) are anchored tightly and dispersed homogeneously on the surface of 3-D GA [10]. On the 3D graphene pore structure, the Fe3O4 QDs (2–5 nm) are homogeneously anchored [10]. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributable to that the GA not just acts as a 3-D electronic conductive matrix for electrons and the fast transportation of Li+, though also offers with pulverization of Fe3O4 QDs during cycling and double protection against the aggregation [10]. The Fe3O4 QDs/GA composites are fruitful materials as advanced anode materials for Li-ion batteries [10]. “The Fe3O4 QDs/GA has an excellent reversible capacity of 1078 mAh g−1 after 70 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g−1” [10].

1.2.11 Facial Synthesis of Carbon-Coated ZnFe2O4/Graphene and Their Enhanced Lithium Storage Properties [11]

Carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 spheres with sizes of ~110–180 nm anchored on graphene nanosheets (ZF@C/G) are efficiently prepared and utilized as anode materials for Li-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) [11]. The obtained ZF@C/G introduces an initial discharge capacity of 1235 mAh g−1 and establishes a reversible capacity of 775 mAh g−1 after 150 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g−1 [11]. The enhanced electrochemical performances could be attributable to the synergetic role of graphene and homogeneous carbon coating (~3–6 nm), which can hinder the volume expansion, enhance the electron transfer between carbon-coated ZnFe2O4 spheres, and deter the pulverization/aggregation upon prolonged cycling [11].

1.2.12 High Electrochemical Energy Storage in Self-assembled Nest-Like CoO Nanofibers with Long Cycle Life [12]

The electrochemical properties of hydrothermally synthesized CoO nanofibres of diameter 30–80 nm, which is assembled in a nest-like morphology which revealed a quite high reversible lithium storage capacity of 2000 mAh g−1 after 600 cycles at 0.1 mA cm−2 as lithium-ion battery anode, are indicated by us [12]. Once investigated as a supercapacitor electrode in 1.0 M KOH, a capacitance of 1167 F g−1 is accomplished from these 1D CoO nanofibres after 10,000 charge discharge cycles at a high current density of 5, which reveals A g−1 satisfactory application potential [12]. Upon 600 cycles, Nest-like CoO nanofibres revealed a reversible lithium storage capacity of 2000 mAh g−1 as LIB anode and a capacitance of 1167 F g−1 after 10,000 cycles as electrochemical supercapacitor [12]. The Raman, and XRD, FTIR, spectroscopy results suggest successful synthesis of phase-pure CoO by this straightforward hydrothermal process inside an autoclave where areal oxidation to impurity stages like Co3O4 can be avoided [12]. In the discharge state and in the charged state, remarkable difference in morphologies can be detected [12].

1.2.13 Shape-Controlled Porous Carbon from Calcium Citrate Precursor and Their Intriguing Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries [13]

The as-prepared commodities indicate homogeneous morphologies, in which the FPCMs are self-assembled from PCNSs [13]. Upon 50 cycles at 100 mA g−1, these carbon materials deliver a stable reversible capacity above 515 mAh g−1 as anodes of lithium-ion (lithium ion) batteries [13]. That the new shape-controlled porous carbon materials have potential applications as electrode materials in electronic tools is revealed by the investigation [13]. It could be detected that the microspheres are comprised of nanosheets via a characteristic self-assembly process from a broken microsphere [13].

1.2.14 Novel Ag@Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon Composite with High Electrochemical Performance as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries [14]

Upon 200 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g−1, the reversible capacity of Ag-NPC remained at 852 mAh g−1, demonstrating its striking cycling stability [14]. The reversible capacity for both materials progressively declined with the current rate [14]. The enhancement of the electrochemical properties including reversible capacity, cycling performance and rate performance of Ag-NPC, which is compared to the NPC, led to the synergetic impacts between NPC and Ag nanoparticles [14]. At 0.35 and 0.12 V, the peaks linked to the dealloying process of Li–Ag could be detected in the anodic scan [14]. It had been notable that for the charge-discharge profile of the Ag-NPC, numerous small plateaus could be detected apart from the one at 0.75 V [14].

1.2.15 Graphene-Co/CoO Shaddock Peel-Derived Carbon Foam Hybrid as Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries [15]

The preparation of G-Co/CoO SPDCF had been according to the following two steps [15]. That graphene had been homogeneously dispersed into the SPDCF and the carbonized shaddock peels had hierarchical porous nanoflakes structures had been demonstrated by the results [15]. The nano-sized Co/CoO had been formed on the G-SPDCF [15]. The caused G-Co/CoO SPDCF hybrid can retain a high capacity of 600 mAh g−1 at 0.2 A g−1 after 80 cycles, which had been considerably greater than that of commercial graphite (372 mAh g−1) [15].

1.2.16 Porous NiO Hollow Quasi-nanospheres Derived from a New Metal-Organic Framework Template as High-Performance Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries [16]

Once assessed as an anode material for Li-ion batteries, the MOF deduced NiO electrode displays high capacity, rate performance (760 mAh g−1 at 200 mA g−1 after 100 cycles, 392 mAh g−1 at 3200 mA g−1) and satisfactory cycling stability [16]. That superior lithium storage performance is primarily attributable to the distinctive hollow and porous nanostructure of the as-synthesized NiO; this hollow provide sufficiently space to accommodate the dramstic volume change and ameliorate the pulverization issue during the repeated lithiation/delithiation mechanisms, and offer more electro-active sites for fast electrochemical reactions including foster lithium ions and electrons transfer at the electrolyte/electrode interface [16]. Between 300 and 500 °C, which is attributable to the combustion of adsorbed PVP, a final slight weight deterioration could be detected [16].

1.2.17 Synthesis of ZnCo2O4 Microspheres with Zn0.33Co0.67CO3 Precursor and Their Electrochemical Performance [17]

Through a facile solvothermal technique, Zn0.33Co0.67CO3 (ZCCO) microspheres are fabricated at various temperatures, and ZnCo2O4 (ZCO) microspheres were additional obtained by pyrolysis of the relative ZCCO precursors at 450 °C [17]. Upon 70 cycles under the voltage variety of 0.01–3.0 V at the current density of 100 mA g−1, compared with the synthesized of 180 °C, the synthesized of 200 (ZCCO-200) °C showed greater (1530 mAh g−1) discharge capacity and better rate performance with the reversible capacity of 876 mAh g−1 [17]. In contrast with the first cycle, the principal decrease peak in the following cycles had been shifted to 0.95 V, which is indicative of the various electrochemical reactions during the two mechanisms (Wang and others [443]), [17]. In contrast with the ZCCO-180, the as-prepared ZCCO-200 microspheres showed greater discharge capacity (1530 mAh g−1) and better rate performance with the reversible capacity of 876 mAh g−1 after 70 cycles [17]. The as-obtained ZCO microspheres from the pyrolysis of ZCCO-200 showed better cycling stability (741 mAh g−1 after 70 cycles) than that for the microspheres from the pyrolysis of ZCO-180 and greater discharge capacity of 1416 mAh g−1, suggesting that the electrochemical properties of ZCO might be linked to the electrochemical performance of ZCCO [17]. Our present work indicated that both the ZCO and ZCCO microspheres could be fruitful candidates as new anode materials for lithium-ion battery applications [17].

1.2.18 Carbon Nanotubes Cross-Linked Zn2SnO4 Nanoparticles/Graphene Networks as High Capacities, Long Life Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries [18]

Acting as bridge and the strut to open the graphene sheets, 3D RGO/MWCNT nets not just deal with the issue of the aggregation of ZTO nanoparticles and volume expansion, though retain the integration of anode materials for high electrochemical performance in the designed hybrid nanostructure [18]. Material indicates high reversible capacity, long-running cycle performance for Li-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) and superior rate capacity were anoded by the resultant [18]. Our investigation reveals significant potential of ZTO/RGO/MWCNTs as anode materials for Li-ion batteries [18]. A restricted capacity of 372 mAh g−1 [444, 445] could be just showed by graphitic carbon at complete lithiation [18].

1.2.19 Environmental-Friendly and Facile Synthesis of Co3O4 Nanowires and Their Promising Application with Graphene in Lithium-Ion Batteries [19]

The 1D nanowire structure with a high facet ratio had been readily accomplished through a magnetic-field-assisted self-assembly of cobalt ion complexes during decrease [19]. In huge scale, the Co3O4 nanowires were prepared and willing to be utilized as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries after air-calcinations [19]. The Co3O4 nanowires possessed a length, which ranges from 3 to 8 μm with the dimension ratio more than 15, and showed a reversible lithium storage capacity up to ~790 mAh/g when employing a small quantity of defect-free graphene flakes as conductive additives [19]. The Co3O4 nanowire/graphene composite holds fruitful application for lithium-ion batteries [19].

1.2.20 Porous ZnO@C Core-Shell Nanocomposites as High Performance Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries [20]

A new porous spherical ZnO@carbon (C) nanocomposite, which is based upon zeolitic imidazolate approaches (ZIFs-8)-directed technique, had been prepared for lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) [20]. Via pyrolyzing the corresponding ZnO@ZIF-8, the new porous spherical ZnO@C nano-composites were obtained [20]. The new porous spherical ZnO@C nano-composites were typified with various analysis methods including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy [20].

1.2.21 Synthesis of One-Dimensional Graphene-Encapsulated TiO2 Nanofibers with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capacity for Lithium-Ion Batteries [21]

The unidimensional graphene/TiO2 composite nanofibres with the distinctive microstructures have been efficiently synthesized through an effective technique and revealed excellent high rate performances as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and the enhanced rate capacity [21]. The existence of graphene not just enhances the electronic electrical conductivity for serving as the further transport channel though avoids the agglomeration of anatase TiO2 nanofibres, hence keeping their high active surface area [21].

1.2.22 Recent Progress in Cobalt-Based Compounds as High-Performance Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries [22]

A number of cobalt-based compounds (Co(OH)2, Co3O4, CoN, CoS, CoP, NiCo2O4, etc.) have been devised over the past years as fruitful anode materials for Li-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) because of their high theoretical capacity, adequate cycleability and rich redox reaction [22]. The Li-ion batteries performances of the cobalt-based compounds have been substantially enhanced in recent decades, and it is anticipated that these materials will become a tangible reality for practical applications in the near future [22]. That review briefly investigates recent progress in this field, particularly highlights the synthetic methodologies and their corresponding performances in Li-ion batteries and the prepared nanostructures of the heterogeneous cobalt-based compounds, such as the storage capacity, cycling stability, rate capability and so on [22]. That cobalt oxides can be a satisfactory choice for the practical application in Li-ion batteries is revealed by the above results [22]. It is anticipated that the Li-ion batteries performance of the cobalt-based compounds will make significant progress and become a tangible reality for practical applications in the near future [22].

1.2.23 Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Tin-Doped MoS2 (Sn/MoS2) Composites for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications [23]

Through employing SnCl2·2H2O and (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O as raw materials via a straightforward solvothermal technique, which pyrolysis followed, SnO2–MoO3 composites were synthesized [23]. “SnO2–MoO3 composites were formed on the basis of Ostwald ripening mechanism (Li and others [253]), [23].” Tin-doped MoS2 (Sn/MoS2) flowers have been synthesized by a solvothermal technique followed with annealing in Ar(H2) atmosphere, with SnO2–MoO3, urea as starting materials, and thioacetamide (TAA) [23]. Both greater reversible capacity and better cycling performance at current density of 200 mA g−1, compared with MoS2 without Sn doping is shown by all Sn/MoS2 composites as anode materials for Li-ion battery (LIB) [23]. Both high reversible capacity and satisfactory cycling performance is shown by nearly all Sn/MoS2 composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries [23]. That the Sn/MoS2 composite can be a fruitful candidate as a new anode material for LIB application is demonstrated by the satisfactory electrochemical performance [23]. That the Sn/MoS2 composites can be fruitful anode materials for LIB applications is demonstrated by the satisfactory electrochemical performance, and our present work offers a novel strategy to the LIB and fabrication applications of MoS2 [23].

1.2.24 N-Doped Graphene/Bi Nanocomposite with Excellent Electrochemical Properties for Lithium-Ion Batteries [24]

N-doped graphene/Bi nanocomposite had been prepared through a two-stage technique, combining the gas/liquid interface reaction with the rapid heat treatment technique [24]. “The prepared N-doped graphene/Bi nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries delivers excellent electrochemical performance” [24]. The N-doped graphene/Bi nanocomposite can still deliver a specific capacity of 218 mAh g−1 even at the high current density of 1000 mA g−1 [24]. The excellent electrochemical performance of the N-doped graphene/Bi nanocomposite is supposed to profit from the synergetic effect of bismuth nanoparticles and nitrogen-doped graphene and the high electronic electrical conductivity of nitrogen-doped graphene [24]. It could be detected that the lumpish Bi2O2CO3 are distributed on the surface of sheet-like graphene, though the size of the lump is not homogeneous [24]. Various from the first discharge curve, one plateau could be detected because of the overlapping in the subsequent discharge cycles [24]. It could be detected the superior capacity retention could be obtained [24].

1.2.25 Fabrication of Urchin-Like NiCo2O4 Microspheres Assembled by Using SDS as Soft Template for Anode Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries [25]

Through a facile protocol, which comprises microemulsion-solvothermal reaction and subsequent calcining at 400 °C for 4 h, the urchin-like NiCo2O4 microspheres assembled by employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as soft template are efficiently fabricated fabricated [25]. It has been clearly confirmed that the prepared 3-D urchin-like NiCo2O4 microspheres are represented by one-dimension nanowires [25]. The high reversible specific capacity, rate performance, and perfect cycleability, are attributable to the distinctive urchin-like NiCo2O4 microspheres; these microspheres can ameliorate the volume expansion and shorten the diffusion path of ions and electrons during lithiation/delithiation process [25]. The self-standing urchin-like NiCo2O4 microspheres might be a quite fruitful candidate in place of the commercial graphite-based anode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries [25]. It could be observed that there is an apparent long discharge plateau in the initial discharge curve, which is congruent with the consequence of CV [25]. It could be observed that the urchin-like NiCo2O4 microspheres anode offers a greater reversible capacity of 1034.2 mAh/g at 100 mA/g even after 40 cycles, which is more superior to other NiCo2O4 electrodes [25].

1.2.26 Synthesis of Spherical Silver-Coated Li4Ti5O12 Anode Material by a Sol-Gel-Assisted Hydrothermal Method [26]

Ag-coated spherical Li4Ti5O12 composite had been efficiently synthesized through a sol-gel-assisted hydrothermal technique, which employs silver and an ethylene glycol nitrate mixture as the precursor, and the impact of the Ag coating contents on the electrochemical properties of its had been intensively examined [26]. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses shown that the excellent electric conductivity of the Li4Ti5O12/Ag caused from the presence of the silver coating layer, which conducts highly [26]. The nano-thick silver layer had been homogeneously coated on the particles and substantially enhanced the rate capability of this material [26]. The silver-coated micro-sized spherial Li4Ti5O12 showed excellent electrochemical performance [26].

1.3 Silicon, SEI, Tin, Graphite, CNTs, Carbon, Anodes, Film

1.3.1 Effects of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Coating on the Composition and Morphology of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase on Sn Anodes [27]

The composition and morphology of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the surface of Sn@PEO and Sn anode materials have been examined in order to explore the effect of polymer coating layer on the Sn anode [27]. In contrast with the bare cycled Sn electrode, the SEI on the surface of cycled Sn@PEO electrode is thinner, more stable, and smoother [27]. Obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the SEI formed on the Sn@PEO electrode is typified by inorganic elements (Li2CO3)-rich outer layer and organic components-rich inner which can make the SEI more stable and hinder the electrolyte, which immerges into the active materials [27]. Notably better capacity retention than bare Sn electrodes is demonstrated by the Sn@PEO electrodes [27].

1.3.2 Insights into Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation on Alternative Anode Materials in Lithium-Ion Batteries [28]

Through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), SEI formation on lithium and silicon titanate (LTO) anodes had been researched and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements to gain novel insight into the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) as a basis for the effective and safe use of novel anode materials [28]. A decrease of the resistance in the second cycle had been detected, which indicates the formation of a stable SEI with SiO2, Li4SiO4, various carbonates as its principal elements, and LiF, on the silicon anodes [28]. The resistance increasing by a factor of two, suggesting incomplete SEI formation on the LTO anodes [28].

1.3.3 Effect of Fluoroethylene Carbonate as an Electrolyte Additive on the Cycle Performance of Silicon-Carbon Composite Anode in Lithium-Ion Battery [29]

The cycling performance of silicon-carbon anodes in the electrolyte with various content (0, 2, 5, 10 wt%) fluorinated ethylene carbonate (FEC) had been researched [29]. Based on 54.81–83.82%, the retention capacity of silicon carbon anode enhanced after 50 cycles among all the electrolytes the injection of 2 wt% FEC into carbonate electrolyte [29].

1.3.4 Tea Polyphenols as a Novel Reaction-Type Electrolyte Additive in Lithium-Ion Batteries [30]

Tea polyphenols (TP) enhanced the electrochemical performance of the graphite electrode including reversible capacity and cyclic stability by cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance microscope (EIS), which scans electron microscope (SEM), discharge/charge test, and electrochemical impedance microscope (EIS) to a certain extent [30]. “The first charge capacities of the graphite electrodes in electrolytes without and with TP were 327.1 and 349.1 mAh g−1, respectively” [30]. The amelioration had been benefited from the efficient scavenging the less stable radical anions and amelioration the oxidation stability of EC and formation of a thin and compact, stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film with lower resistance [30].

1.3.5 Electrochemical Dispersion Method for the Synthesis of SnO2 as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries [31]

A technique of electrochemical oxidation and dispersion of tin electrodes under alternating pulse current had been devised as a new strategy for the synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles useful as an alternative anode for Li-ion batteries [31].

1.3.6 Identification of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formed on Graphite Electrode Cycled in Trifluoroethyl Aliphatic Carboxylate-Based Electrolytes for Low-Temperature Lithium-Ion Batteries [32]

Trifluoroethyl aliphatic carboxylates with various length of carbon-chain in acyl groups have been introduced into carbonate-based electrolyte as cosolvents to enhance the low-temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries, both lowering polarization of graphite electrode and in capacity retention [32]. The elements and properties of the surface film on graphite electrode, which is cycled in, various electrolytes are examined employing Fourier reshape infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to pinpoint the additional impact of trifluoroethyl aliphatic carboxylates on graphite electrode [32]. XPS results and the IR indicate that the chemical species of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on graphite electrode strongly rely on the selection of cosolvent [32].

1.3.7 Biosilica from Sea Water Diatoms Algae—Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study [33]

We report on an electrochemical impedance investigation of silica of organic origin as an active electrode material [33]. The electrode is electrochemically stable during subsequent cyclic voltammetry measurements taken in the potential variety from 0.005 up to 3.0 V versus Li/Li+ [33]. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which is carried out at an equilibrated potential E = 0.1 V in the temperature variety 288–294 K, discloses low diffusional impedance and low charge transfer resistivity [33]. Crushing is supposed to increase the active surface area, which is needed for a sufficient current outcome [33]. That the relaxation time in SEI films diminishes with temperature increase and is lower for T = 294 K and the fastest for T = 286 K and equal to 0.00796 and 0.017 s, respectively is demonstrated by the results [33]. That naturally taking place, renewable source of nanoporous silica from sea water diatoms are observed to be useful as the anode material for lithium-ion battery applications with comparable time constants for the lithiation process and a greater specific charge capacity than graphite is demonstrated by the results [33].

1.3.8 Polythiophene-Coated Nano-silicon Composite Anodes with Enhanced Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries [34]

Through in situ chemical oxidation polymerization technique, a novel polythiophene-coated silicon composite anode material had been prepared [34]. The better electric contact between silicon particles could be offered by the polythiophene [34]. The as-prepared Si/polythiophene composite electrodes attain better cycling performance than the bare Si anode [34].

1.3.9 A Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Noble Tin Anode Structure for Lithium-Ion Batteries [35]

A carbon noble tin anode structure in which CNTs fasten the tin layer to a copper underlayer, which is bolstered nanotube (CNT)-, has been fabricated employing plating methods so as to enhance the cycleability of lithium-ion batteries [35]. Through a substitution-type electroless plating method, the surface of this composite layer is subsequently coated with a tin layer, resulting in the CNT-reinforced noble tin anode structure [35]. The electrochemical attributes of this noble tin anode structure have been assessed and compared to those of a tin anode structure without CNTs [35].

1.3.10 An Approach to Improve the Electrochemical Performance of LiMn2O4 at High Temperature [36]

The XPS and XRD test results suggest that the TiN can efficiently deter Mn from dissolving in electrolyte; galvanostatic discharge/charge test indicates that LiMn2O4 electrode with TiN displays capacity retention at high temperature with capacity of 105.1 mAh g−1 at 1 C in the first cycle at 55 °C, which is enhanced remarkably, and the capacity establishes 88.9% retention after 150 cycles [36]. That TiN, as an addictive, made apparent contribution to the electrochemical cycling performance of LiMn2O4, which is enhanced substantially, could be concluded by us [36]. Upon the discharge/charge had been collapsed [450], the crystal lattice in the electrodes is revealed by these results [36].

1.3.11 Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries [37]

Once testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries), binder played crucial role on the electrochemical performance [37]. Which binder had been more useful for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of Li-ion batteries has not been systematically studied [37]. SBR+CMC binder had been more useful for making transition metal oxides anodes of Li-ion batteries [37]. Test results indicate that active material had been easy to fall off from the current collector if use PVDF for binder [37]. It could be detected that fabricated with SBR+CMC binder, particularly when the slurry ratio had been 80:10:10, the electrode shown an outstanding electric conductivity, excellent charge transfer, influential binding capability, satisfactory rate performance, and striking cycling performance, and ultimately consequence in the brilliant electrochemical performance [37].

1.3.12 Carbon/Tin Oxide Composite Electrodes for Improved Lithium-Ion Batteries [38]

Tin and Tin oxide-based electrodes are fruitful high-capacity anodes for lithium-ion batteries [38]. A technique to prepare scalable carbon, a cheap and tin (II) oxide composite anode is indicated [38]. Through ball milling of carbon, which is recovered from utilized tire powders with 25 wt% tin (II) oxide to form lithium-ion battery anode, the composite material had been prepared [38]. Inside the pores of carbon, which is waste-tire-derived, tin oxide powders were evenly distributed with the influence of energy from the ball milling [38]. A technique to prepare cheap carbon/tin (II) oxide (SnO) composite by ball milling is indicated [38].

1.3.13 A Silicon-Impregnated Carbon Nanotube Mat as a Lithium-Ion Cell Anode [39]

A material for the anodes of lithium-ion batteries because of its high practical charge capacity of 3600 mAh g−1, which is ~10 times the specific capacity of traditional graphitic materials, which is studied extensively, is silicon [39]. Silicon is a meager conductor so silicon should be coupled with conductive additives, usually carbonaceous in character, to enhance electron conduction from the silicon to the current collector [39]. We report a new silicon anode fabrication method; this method entails winding an congruent carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet and commensurately infiltrating it in situ silicon an aqueous solution, which includes silicon nanoparticles and hydroxypropyl guar binder [39]. The resulting infiltrated felts were assessed, processed, and compared to traditional silicon-carbon black anodes with the identical carbon, silicon, and binder content as a proof of notion investigation [39]. Through a drawing operation from a CNT vertical assortment, a new fabrication technique is explained for the negative electrode for a lithium-ion battery: a CNT mat is formed whilst simultaneously being impregnated with a solution, which includes hydroxypropyl guar gum binder and silicon nanoparticles [39]. The resulting CNT-Si anode structure indicates enhanced life-time cycling performance, which is compared to conventional slurry-based silicon anodes [39].

1.3.14 High Cycling Performance Si/CNTs@C Composite Material Prepared by Spray-Drying Method [40]

Through a spray, the anode material Si/CNTs@C composite is prepared-drying combined pyrolysis technology [40]. Excellent electrochemical performance is demonstrated by the composite as anode for LIB [40]. AC impedance analysis and the CV suggest that the prepared composite individually indicates low charge-transfer impedance R ct and satisfactory electrode stability [40]. That the Si/CNTs@C composite is a potential alternative to graphite for high energy-density lithium-ion batteries is revealed by the results [40]. It could be observed that, as the current density increases from 50 to 1000 mA g−1, the reversible specific capacity is 633.4, 626, 617.3, 591.4, and 551.7 mAh g−1 at the current density of 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 mA g−1, respectively [40]. It could be observed that the charge transfer resistance had been substantially declined after adding CNTs [40].

1.3.15 Synergistic Film-Forming Effect of Oligo(Ethylene Oxide)-Functionalized Trimethoxysilane and Propylene Carbonate Electrolytes on Graphite Anode [41]

In graphite/Li cells employing the electrolyte of 1 M LiPF6 in the dichotomous solvent of PC and TMSM2, with the PC content in the variety of 10–30 vol.%, good SEI film-forming cycling and capability performance had been detected [41]. The graphite/Li cells delivered greater specific capacity and better capacity retention in the electrolyte of 1 M LiPF6 in TMSM2 and PC (TMSM2: PC = 9:1, by vol), compared with those in the electrolyte of 1 M LiPF6 in TMSM2 and EC (TMSM2: EC = 9:1, by vol) [41]. Through electrolyte solution structure analysis, the synergetic SEI film-forming properties of PC and TMSM2 on the surface of graphite anode had been typified via Raman surface and spectroscopy analysis, which is observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier reshape infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis [41].

1.3.16 Effect of Tungsten Nanolayer Coating on Si Electrode in Lithium-Ion Battery [42]

The first charge capacities of uncoated electrode cells and the W-coated were 2558 mAh g−1 and 1912 mAh g−1, respectively with the electrochemical property analysis [42]. Morphology transformations in the W-coated Si anode during cycling electrochemical attributes were investigated via impedance analysis, and were detected employing TEM and SEM [42]. Due to W-coated Si’s mechanical and electrical conductivity properties from the atomic W layer coating via PVD, the electrode enhanced the electrode’s cycleability and preserved the electrode’s structure from volumetric demolition [42].

1.3.17 Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Propylene Carbonate-Based Electrolyte Solutions for Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on the Lewis Basicity of the Co-solvent and Counter Anion [43]

In PC-based electrolyte solutions and reversible intercalation and de-intercalation of the lithium ions at the graphite negative electrode do not proceed, an efficient solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is not formed [43]. Another solution to this issue is to control the structure of the solvated lithium ions [43]. We concentrated on the Lewis basicity of the counter and cosolvent anion in the lithium salt to form an efficient SEI and control the solvation in a PC-based electrolyte solution [43]. Tetraglyme and triglyme were utilized as the cosolvents, and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate and lithium bis (fluorosulfonyl) amide were utilized as the anion sources [43].

1.3.18 Rice Husk-Originating Silicon–Graphite Composites for Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes [44]

Nearly 20 wt% of mesoporous SiO2 is contained by rice husk [44]. Through reducing the rice husk-originating SiO2 employing a magnesio-milling process, we yield mesoporous silicon (Si) [44]. Taking advantage of huge readily available amount and meso-porosity, we employ rice, which husk-originates Si, to Li-ion battery anodes in a composite form with commercial graphite [44]. The series of electrochemical results indicate that rice, which husk-originates Si graphite composites are fruitful candidates for high capacity Li-ion battery anodes, with the influential advantages in scalability and battery performance [44].

1.3.19 Composites of Tin Oxide and Different Carbonaceous Materials as Negative Electrodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries [45]

Tin oxide and Tin have been regarded as useful materials with a high theoretical capacity for Li-ion batteries [45]. The issue to circumvent with tin oxide, including with other metallic materials, is high volume transformations during alloying/dealloying, subsequent pulverization, delamination from current collectors, which follows continuous degradation of the anode [45]. Much attention had been paid to integrate carbonaceous materials [45]. Summarized results concerning utilization of the tin oxide-carbonaceous negative electrode material are summarized [45]. These an strategy caused in attaining a discharge capacity of over 140 mAh g−1 at a current density equal to 400 mA g−1 for the Sn/SnO2/PC composite in a sodium-ion battery [45].

1.4 Conclusion

That NiO/CNT composites display excellent cycling stability and high specific capacity primarily because of the synergetic effect between NiO and CNTs including the 3D network porous structure is confirmed by the results [1]. A maximal capacity of 812 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g−1 is accomplished for NiO/CNTs-10 [1]. That NiO/CNT composites are appealing as potential anodes for Li-ion batteries is demonstrated by the results [1].

A facile, one-pot, and easy, hydrothermal strategy has been summarized for producing a new kind of SnO2–TiO2@graphene ternary composite with high surface zones and distinctive structure [2]. Benefitting from the products’ distinctive structure, the product displays outstanding cycle ability, high reversible specific capacity, and satisfactory rate capability as an anode material for Li-ion batteries, which owes to the synergetic relationships between graphene and metal oxides [2]. Upon 200 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g−1, the as-prepared SnO2–TiO2@graphene hybrid delivers a reversible discharge capacity as high as 1276 mAh g−1 [2]. The SnO2–TiO2@graphene composite could be utilized as a fruitful anode material for next-generation Li-ion batteries in view of the superior electrochemical properties [2].

A facile single-step pyrolysis reaction technique had been efficiently devised to prepare carbon and few-layer MoS2 nanosheets co-modified TiO2 nano-composites; these nano-composites are regarded to be of considerable profit to enhance both the electronic electrical conductivity and ionic electrical conductivity of TiO2 [3]. Once assessed as a LIB anode, the nano-composites display cycle stability and enhanced specific capacity [3]. The specific capacity decreases slightly from 180 to 160 mAh g−1 at the current density of 1.0 C after 300 cycles, demonstrating a superior cycle stability [3].

Via a facile filtration approach, a flexible Co3O4/GR/CNT hybrid film had been efficiently synthesized and thermally treated process [4]. In contrast with the GR/CNT and Co3O4 films, the hybrid film showed an enhanced electrochemical performance, which comprises an enhanced cycling stability of 863 mAh g−1 at a current density of 100 mA g−1 after 55 cycles and excellent rate performances of 1195, 916, 707, 457, and 185 mAh g−1 at current densities of 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mA g−1, respectively [4].

In aqueous solution, a composite comprising of ultra-short rice-like CuO-NRs supported on rGO nanosheets had been synthesized through a straightforward refluxing approach [5]. Once the CuO-NRs had been functioned as anode active material for Li-ion batteries, the CuO-NRs/rGO composite indicates substantially enhanced satisfactory rate capability and cyclic stability compared to rGO nanosheets and the pure CuO-NRs [5].

The utilization of N/S dual-doped carbon as conceptual framework for the homogenous anchoring of TiO2 nanoparticles had been devised by us [6]. TiO2 nanoparticles are anchored into the porous graphene-based sheets with N, S dual doping characteristic; this N is generated by KOH activation process and carbonization [6]. Superior rate capacity and the excellent cycling performance might correspond to the effect of the N/S heteroatoms doping of the well-defined structure and carbon matrix [6].

The mesoporous dandelion-like Co3O4 material had been synthesized through a facile hydrothermal technique, which calcining at 400 °C in air followed [7]. A greater first reversible charge capacity of 1430.0 mAh g−1 had been shown by the electrode material [7]. The super electrochemical properties and the simplicity of the preparation technique make the mesoporous dandelion-like Co3O4 material a candidate for the next generation of anode materials for Li-ion batteries [7].

We have devised a facile template-free technique for the fabrication of PHS-CuCo2O4 as a high-performance anode material for Li-ion batteries [8]. The lithium storage property tests on half-cell system showed that the PHS-CuCo2O4 electrode showed greater specific capacity, rate performance, and better cycling stability, compared with SS-CuCo2O4 electrode [8]. Rate performance and excellent cycling performance had been also showed by PHS-CuCo2O4 electrode for complete cell [8]. The excellent electrochemical performance of the as-prepared PHS-CuCo2O4 is attributable to its distinctive porous hollow structure [8].

Once NCM and RF-C are utilized to anode material for Li-ion batteries, at the identical current density of 210 mA g−1, the retain capacity are 429.379 and 926.654 mAh g−1, respectively, and the initial specific discharge capacity are 482.4 and 2575.992 mAh g−1, respectively, after 50 cycles [9]. Upon activation with CO2 atmosphere, the nanopores are formed on the carbon spheres; NCM as anode material indicate stable specific discharge capacity at various current density in continue cycling, and the performance of anode materials are enormously enhanced; the NCM as anode material of Li-ion batteries displays greater discharge capacity than RF-C [9]. The material still kept 780.744 mAh g−1 specific discharge capacity at current density of 400 mA g−1 after continuous 250 cycles charge-discharge testing at various current density [9].

Through subsequent annealing and a hydrothermal treatment, we have devised a facile strategy to preparing Fe3O4 QDs/GA [10]. “The Fe3O4 QDs/GA has an excellent reversible capacity of 1078 mAh g−1 after 70 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g−1” [10]. The bigger reversible capacity might be attributable to a short Li+ transfer distance of Fe3O4 QDs and the quantum size impacts [10].

The electrochemical tests indicate that the fabricated ZF@C/G electrode displays high capacity and satisfactory cycling performance, with an initial discharge capacity of 1235 mAh g−1 that is kept over 770 mAh g−1 after 150 cycles [11]. A satisfactory rate capacity with a high current density of 2.5 A g−1, a reversible specific capacity is 410 mAh g−1 is shown by the ZF@C/G electrode [11]. A potential alternative anode to high-performance Li-ion batteries is ZF@C/G [11].

It is shown that a scalable and straightforward low-temperature solvothermal technique could be utilized to synthesize cubic brucite stage of CoO nanofibres with a nest-like morphology [12]. Through the enhancement of Co2+ ↔ Cox+ (2 < x ≤ 3) redox process in addition to formation of polymer like gel and the morphological evolution, the mechanism of Li storage is described [12].

The FPCMs present the highest specific surface area (~1489 m2 g−1) due to their distinctive structure that well-organized assembling FPCMs’ nanosheets [13]. The highest discharge/charge capacities during the first cycle are shown by the FPCMs [13]. The rate capacity of FPCMs (378 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1) is also greater than that of PCNFs (364 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1) and PCNSs (311 mAh g−1 at 1 A g−1), suggesting a superior specific capacity compared with the graphite [13]. The three kinds of porous carbon display significant improvements in cycling performance and reversible capacities particularly for FPCMs [13].

In cycling performance including the reversible capacity (852 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles), striking enhancement had been demonstrated by the Ag-NPC composite, compared to NPC without incorporated Ag nanoparticles [14]. That had been attributable to the synergetic effect of N-doped and Ag nanoparticles porous carbon [14]. The N-doped porous carbon functioned as a reliable matrix for Ag nanoparticles; this NPs can deter particle aggregation and ameliorate the volumetric expansion [14]. The Ag nanoparticles that showed superior electrical conductivity including a comparatively high specific capacity can effectively raise its reversible capacity and improve cycling performance by enhancing the quality of SEI films in return [14].

Convenient technique and a new had been devised to fabricate G-Co/CoO SPDCF hybrid [15]. Due to the tremendous specific surface area of G-SPDCF, a huge number of Co/CoO nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed on the surface of G-SPDCF and reasonably well immobilized [15]. Once utilized as anode materials for Li-ion batteries, the G-Co/CoO SPDCF showed satisfactory Li+ storage capacity (~600 mAh g−1 at 0.2 A g−1), long-cycling stability and enhanced rate performance (405 mAh g−1 at high current density of 2 A g−1) [15]. The enhanced electrochemical performances of G-Co/CoO SPDCF hybrid were attributable to the nanoflakes structures to increase the surface area of the target materials and the satisfactory dispersion of a huge number of Co/CoO nanoparticles [15].

The hollow porous structure of the MOF-derived NiO anode materials can increase the electrode/electrolyte contact, shorten the diffusion length of both Li ions and electrons, and efficiently accommodate the dramstic volume change and ameliorate the pulverization issue during the repeated lithiation/delithiation mechanisms [16]. In high-capacity anode materials for next-generation Li-ion batteries, taken into consideration the straightforward preparation process, satisfactory electrochemical performances and mass production, the MOF-derived NiO indicates considerable potentials [16].

In contrast with the ZCCO-180, the as-prepared ZCCO-200 microspheres showed greater discharge capacity (1530 mAh g−1) and better rate performance with the reversible capacity of 876 mAh g−1 after 70 cycles [17]. The as-obtained ZCO-200 microspheres showed better cycling stability (741 mAh g−1 after 70 cycles) than that for the ZCO-180 and greater reversible discharge capacity of 1416 mAh g−1 [17]. The electrochemical properties of ZCO might be linked to the electrochemical performance of ZCCO [17]. Our present work indicated that both the ZCO and ZCCO microspheres could be fruitful candidates as new anode materials for Li-ion batteries [17].

Through anchoring ZTO nanoparticles on the surface of entwined MWCNTs and wrinkled graphene, to form an advanced electrode materials for Li-ion batteries, we have devised a new ZTO/RGO/MWCNTs architectures [18]. That the introduction of MWCNTs and GO efficiently ameliorate the capacity fading and maximize the ZTO electrodes with new porous structure and high specific surface area, tremendous electronic carry out is confirmed by the results [18].

SAED results and the XRD suggested that the as-obtained Co3O4NW samples displayed satisfactory quality in stage and chemical composition [19]. Through TEM and SEM, the Co3O4NWs with the mean diameter roughly nm 180 and the length, which ranges from 3 to 8 μm, were detected [19]. Such nanowires display satisfactory electrochemical performance, volume-change-accommodating character of the distinctive 1D-2D hybrid nanostructure in conjunction with 2D graphene and attaining lithium storage capacity greater than 700 mAh/g, as a consequence of the fast electron transport [19].

The potent buffer capability of the porous carbon shell, which is beneficial to enhance electrochemical performance and the superior capacity of the ZnO core is combined by this unusual configuration [20]. In contrast with the commercial and ZnO ZnO and other indicated ZnO-based materials, the nanocomposite with porous core/shell structure of ZnO@C display high specific capacity (750 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1) and striking rate performance (351 mAh g−1 at 2000 mA g−1) [20]. Remarkable electrochemical performance of hollow porous ZnO@C composites and the facile synthesis make it be a fruitful anode material for high performance Li-ion batteries [20].

The G/TiO2 nanofibres revealed excellent rate performance, the high reversible capacity, and superior cycle stability which were attributable to the complementary and synergetic effect between anatase TiO2 nanofibres and graphene [21].

Various from traditional carbon negative electrodes, the redox operation of the cobalt-based compounds versus lithium is based upon conversion reactions rather than intercalation reactions [22]. It appears that the most fruitful one is the cobalt-based ternary oxides because of the greater electrochemical activity with various oxidation states, their cheaper and more environmentally friendly doped elements and better electric conductivity than that of single element metal oxides among the examined cobalt-based compounds [22]. Through combining the cobalt-based compounds with highly conductive substrates or by designing the heterogeneous structures of cobalt-based electrodes, the lithium ion storage of the cobalt-based compounds could be substantially enhanced [22]. It is anticipated that the Li-ion batteries performance of the cobalt-based compounds will make significant progress and become a tangible reality for practical applications in the near future [22].

That the doping of Sn in MoS2 can help to enhance the electrical conductivity of pure MoS2, enhancing the cycling performance of MoS2 is demonstrated by the results [23]. Both high reversible capacity and satisfactory cycling performance is shown by nearly all Sn/MoS2 composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries [23]. That the Sn/MoS2 composites can be fruitful anode materials for LIB applications is demonstrated by the satisfactory electrochemical performance, and our present work offers a novel strategy to the LIB and fabrication applications of MoS2 [23].

The synthesized nanocomposite delivers more superior electrochemical performance in comparison with the other bismuth-based materials indicated previously when utilized as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries; this material is attributed to the high electronic electrical conductivity of N-doped graphene and the synergetic effect of both bismuth nanoparticles and nitrogen-doped graphene [24]. The excellent electrochemical performance consequence makes it readily available as a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries, which might be positive and encouraged to build more high-performance bismuth-based composites electrode for lithium-ion batteries [24].

The NiCo2O4 electrode displays an excellent cycling stability and rate performance, which is attributable to its distinctive urchin-like NiCo2O4 microspheres with more active sites, high lithium-ion diffusion coefficient, and satisfactory electrical conductivity, as it is utilized to anode material for Li-ion batteries [25].

Through a sol-gel-assisted hydrothermal technique, anode materials spherical Li4Ti5O12/Ag composites with a high tap density were prepared [26]. The excessive silver content will cause the electrochemical properties of material poorer [26]. Appropriate Ag-coated spherical Li4Ti5O12 composite is a superior lithium storage material with excellent safety and a high capacity, and it has real potential as a fruitful material in power Li-ion batteries [26].

The morphologies and compositions of SEI layers formed on Sn@PEO and the Sn anode material surfaces have been examined through a distinctive combination of XPS, and SEM, TEM [27]. We have detected that the passivation layer on the surface of the bare Sn electrode modes just when the first contact with the electrolyte, various from the Sn@PEO electrode before cycling [27]. Based on TEM measurement and the SEM, the Sn@PEO electrode indicates better film-forming feature than bare Sn electrode, which has better capacity retention and clearer separation of the Sn nanoparticles and a thinner SEI after cycling [27]. Reveal clear variations between the bare Sn@PEO and Sn electrodes concerning the thickness and composition of the SEI is spectraed by XPS [27]. Whereas the SEI formed on the Sn@PEO is quite thin and Sn@PEO’s fluctuation extent upon cycling is less than that on Sn [27]. The Sn@PEO electrode is favourable to form a stable and compact SEI layer since the Sn@PEO electrode includes high insoluble passivating actors including Li2CO3 in the outer part of SEI [27].

SEM, XPS, DRT analyses for silicon and LTO, and EIS, had been carried out by us to investigation SEI growth in half-cells during the first cycle [28]. The combined techniques revealed that a surface layer formed on both the LTO and silicon anodes [28]. Surface layer formation on the lithium counter electrode can not be overlooked as it relates substantially to the overall surface resistance, R Surf particularly in the case of LTO [28].

The cycling performance of silicon-carbon anodes with various concentrations of FEC had been compared [29]. Cycle performance had been anoded by the silicon-carbon and capacity retention rate has been substantially enhanced with the FEC addition [29]. The excellent electrochemical performance of the silicon-carbon anode in FEC-containing electrolytes is because of the stable SEI film [29].

TP had been shown as a stable and novel reaction-type additive for Li-ion batteries in this work by FTIR, discharge/charge, CV, EIS measurements, and SEM [30].

We have efficiently prepared for the first time SnO2 powder by employing electrochemical oxidation-dispersion of tin under ac pulse operation [31]. The mean grain size of crystallites of the as-prepared tin oxide had been 11–16 nm and it had 82.5 m2 g−1 specific surface [31]. The reversible capacity in the first cycle had been around 680 mAh g−1 close to the theoretical capacity [31]. The columbic efficiency in the first cycle had been 44% similar with that supposed for SnO2 anodes [31]. Capacity retention of about 66% over 60 cycles had been demonstrated by the material [31].

Carbonate-based electrolytes with trifluoroethyl aliphatic carboxylate as cosolvent were systematically examined for low-temperature lithium-ion batteries [32]. That the cells employing these cosolvents deliver greater Li+ intercalation capacities than baseline electrolyte at low temperature without compromise to the performance at room temperature had been founded by us [32]. TFENH might be the most useful cosolvent for low-temperature carbonate-based electrolyte [32].

The material, which pyrolysis of marine algae obtained, includes porous silica [33]. The presence of distressed semicircles, in the form of constant stage elements instead of pure capacitors in the electric equivalent circuit, suggests that the surface is rough and that the material is porous, inhomogeneous [33]. In the SEI film, Electrochemical mechanisms taking place and between SEI interface/silica particles have been identified [33]. The time constant of SEI film impedance is 104 lower in comparison with the time constant originating from modified Randles circuit values linked to the charge transfer process between silica particles and the SEI interface [33]. The slowest process is lithium-ion diffusion in the bulk film [33]. The pseudocapacitance of the SEI film is constant and affects the charge transfer capacitance though is not temperature-dependent [33]. We are cognizant that the presence of crystobalite, quartz, traces of magnetite and albite would vary if one goes from batch to batch [33]. That naturally taking place, renewable source of nanoporous silica from sea water diatoms are observed to be useful as the anode material for lithium-ion battery applications with comparable time constants for the lithiation process and a greater specific charge capacity than graphite is demonstrated by the results [33].

Improved electric contact between silicon particles could be offered by the polythiophene [33]. “The electrochemical cycling performance of Si/PTh composite anodes is better than the bare Si anode” [33]. Upon 50 cycles, the specific capacity of Si/30% PTh composite electrode possesses 478 mAh g−1 [34].

A novel tin anode structure for lithium-ion batteries, in which CNTs fasten tin active material layer and the copper underlayer, has been fabricated employing plating methods [35]. CV measurements indicate that the lithiation rate is enhanced by the presence of CNTs and that the lithiation mechanism of the novel tin anode is various from that of a standard tin anode in the first cycle [35].

TiN is utilized as an active material additive to decline the practical capacity decay of LiMn2O4 at high temperature [36]. Galvanostatic discharge/charge test indicates that LiMn2O4 electrode with TiN displays enhanced cyclic stability at high temperature with 93.4 mAh g−1 and capacity of 105.1 mAh g−1 at the first cycle after 150 cycles at 1 C at 55 °C [36]. TiN can be an efficient addictive for enhancing the cycling performance of LiMn2O4 and the application prospect of TiN is fairly appealing [36].

That investigation has examined the electrochemical performance of CuO electrodes deal with with various binders and studied the adhesive properties of the organic PVDF binders or aqueous binders of SBR+CMC and LA133 could be varied over the weight ratio of conductive slurry [37]. It could be detected that fabricated with SBR+CMC binder, particularly when the slurry ratio had been 80:10:10, the electrode shown an outstanding electric conductivity, excellent charge transfer, influential binding capability, satisfactory rate performance, and striking cycling performance, and ultimately consequence in the brilliant electrochemical performance [37]. The experimental feasibility and theoretical proof of manufacturing Li-ion batteries anode materials employing inexpensive aqueous SBR+CMC binder instead of poisonous solvent like costly PVDF and NMP had been offered by this work [37].

We have shown a cheap electrode composite for Li-ion batteries by ball milling of waste-tire-derived oxide (SnO) and tin (II) carbon (TC) powders [38]. The influence energy of Ball milling fosters satisfactory bonding between the SnO and TC matrix particles; this bonding has a positive synergetic effect on the composite [38]. That TC/SnO composite indicates potential as a low cost, ecologically benign, and performance-improved anode material for energy storage applications [38].

A novel technique of fabricating silicon-containing LIB anodes through a straightforward infiltration-based process had been summarized by the present study [39]. The resulting infiltrated CNT-Si anodes were typified and compared to CB-Si control samples containing carbon black as a conductive additive instead of CNTs [39]. The CNT-Si samples outperformed the CB-Si anodes in life-time cycling and matched the CB-Si anodes in rate capability [39]. The focus of the present study had been to examine a new silicon anode fabrication method, and follow-up work is planned to maximize the infiltration process to enhance performance and correlate anode structure with device performance [39].

The Si/CNTs@C particles have a homogenous morphology, CNTs is distributed throughout the surface and the interior of the composite, and the surface of the composite is coated with the carbon layer [40]. The Si/CNTs@C composites not just indicate better dynamic performance compared with Si/C composite, though display satisfactory electrochemical performance [40]. The amelioration on electrochemical performance offered the possibility to build as a Si/CNTs@C fruitful high-performance anode material for lithium, which demands power, and greater energy density-ion batteries [40].

Based on the electrolyte of 1 M LiPF6 in the dichotomous solvent of PC and TMSM2, the graphite/Li half cells can deliver an excellent specific discharge capacity of 359.9 mAh g−1 after 60 cycles, which is even better than that with EC as the cosolvent [41]. It could be inferred that there is a synergetic SEI film-forming effect between PC and TMSM2 on graphite electrode to restrain the decomposition of TMSM2 and limit the co-intercalation of PC from the electrolyte surface and solution structure measurement analysis [41].

W had been coated onto a Si electrode employing the PVD protocol to enhance the electrochemical performance of the electrode [42]. The capacity retention of the W-coated electrode shown cycleability, which is enhanced, and had been sustained at 61.1% via 50 cycles, while the retention of the uncoated electrode had been just 25.5% [42]. The W-coated layer reduced the resistivity of the electrode and enhanced the electric conductivity of the cell [42].

In PC-based electrolyte solutions, the co-intercalation of PC-solvated lithium ions at about 0.5 V had been not adequately repressed [43]. In a mixed tetraglyme and PC electrolyte solution, which includes LiOTf compared with the one containing LiFSA, the co-intercalation of PC-solvated lithium ions had been more substantially repressed [43]. Through the OTf anion, the Lewis basicity of the OTf anion is bigger than that of the FSA anion; PC-solvated lithium ions were stabilized [43]. The stability of the PC-solvated lithium ions had been observed to be an crucial factor in the formation of an efficient SEI, and this stability is shaped by the counter anion [43].

We have evaluated c-SiRH–graphite and c-SiRH alone composites with multiple compositions as LIB anodes, in order to exploit of SiRH in both manufacturing and systemic facets [44]. The electrochemical performance of c-SiRH–graphite composites with multiple compositions showed a comparable tradeoff phenomenon, impairing the charge-discharge reversibility with increased the c-SiRH fraction [44]. Additionally enhancement in the reversibility is an crucial ‘must-solve’ task for these composites to be integrated into practical cells [44].

The practical specific capacity of a graphite electrode of 350 mAh g−1 is not appealing anymore for next-generation lithium-ion batteries [45]. Materials demonstrated were oxide-based by all tin all those materials included usage of the carbonaceous matrix, and showed capacities greater than 430 mAh g−1 [45]. That indicates that environmental benignity and the low cost make tin oxides able to substitute graphite anodes [45]. That the main issue with tremendous volume transformations of the tin oxide electrode might be efficiently circumvent by utilization of the carbonaceous matrix as a stress-accommodating stage, which is coupled with reducing the size of tin oxide particles, had been demonstrated by the results [45]. That even though the size of tin oxide-based electrode material could be lowered, it still itself undergoes volume transformations must be taken into consideration by one [45]. There are still two principal difficulties to be resolved: (1) transferring material preparation from the laboratory scale into the industrial scale even though the engineering requirements and expectations concerning the capacity level were fulfilled [45]. The point at which 80% of the initial capacity is reached is the end of battery life [45]. A considerably lower capacity fade is needed in a battery, which is utilized virtually [45]. The crucial parameter for usage of such materials in next-generation lithium-ion batteries is the application of high capacity and high cycleability tin oxide-carbonaceous-based materials manufactured by a cost-efficient, industrial-scalable process [45].

1.5 Related Work

Ji L, Lin Z, Alcoutlabi M, Zhang X (2011) Recent developments in nanostructured anode materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Energy Environ Sci 4:2682–2699 [  https://doi.org/10.1039/c0ee00699h ]

“Yuan’s group [109] synthesized CuCo2O4, the discharge capacity of which still remained 740 mA g−1 at 0.1 C (1 C = 1000 mA g−1) after 50 cycles” [8]. Exploration of novel anode materials with greater capacity is one of the main research directions for Li-ion batteries (Poizot and others [179]; Ji and others [109]; Wang and others [180]; Manthiram and others [181]; Cheng and others [182]), [17]. Novel anode materials with greater capacity for LIB applications (Huang and others [249]; Manthiram and others [181]; Wang and others [180]; Ji and others [109]; Cheng and others [182]) must be examined by us [23].

Park CM, Kim JH, Kim H, Sohn HJ (2010) Li-alloy based anode materials for Li secondary batteries. Chem Soc Rev 39:3115 [  https://doi.org/10.1039/b919877f ]

Several researches have been revolved around high-capacity oxide, which is Sn-based, materials such as SnO2, their composites and SnO, particularly with carbon [31, 314, 315]. Tin oxides (SnO, SnO2) and Tin (Sn) are a family of potential high-capacity anode materials [314, 386, 387, 388], which is researched widely [38].

Wu ZS, Ren WC, Wen L, Gao LB, Zhao JP, Chen ZP, Zhou GM, Li F, Cheng HM (2010) Graphene anchored with Co3O4 nanoparticles as anode of lithium ion batteries with enhanced reversible capacity and cyclic performance. ASC Nano 4:3187–3194 [ https://doi.org/10.1021/nn100740x]

TMOs, Co3O4 indicates comparatively high capacity and is regarded as most potential candidate for Li-ion batteries (Wu and others [186]), [17]. It is the fact that the conversion reaction-based electrodes exhibit low initial columbic efficiency because of the incomplete conversion reaction, the irreversible stage transitions and the irreversible lithium loss, which is based on the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer [22, 186, 230]. With regard to the preceding achievements, heterogeneous graphene-based nanocomposites, extensively examined as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, have showed enhanced electrochemical performance [24, 186, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266].

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  1. 1.HeidelbergGermany

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