Evaluation of Patients for Metastases Prior to Primary Therapy

  • Deniz Eren Böler
  • Neslihan Cabioğlu


For axillary staging, preoperative ultrasound (US) and needle biopsy have emerged as effective methods for triaging women with breast cancer directly to axillary surgery for SLNB or ALND or to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in those with axillary node-positive disease. However, there is no perfect modality to identify metastatic disease in breast cancer; every diagnostic test has its own advantages and limitations. The available evidence suggests routine evaluation for clinical stage III and possibly stage II breast cancer using imaging techniques including FDG PET/CT. The workup of abnormal findings in breast cancer patients is by patient signs and symptoms including history and physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging, biopsy of suspicious finding in imaging studies, and monitoring serum markers.


Staging of breast cancer Axillary staging PET/CT 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deniz Eren Böler
    • 1
  • Neslihan Cabioğlu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of General Surgery, Yeniyüzyıl University Gaziosmanpaşa HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of MedicineIstanbulTurkey

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