Advertisement

Breast Disease pp 309-316 | Cite as

Surgical Management of Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  • Atilla SoranEmail author
  • Bulent Unal
  • Tara Grahovac
Chapter

Abstract

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare clinicopathological entity but remains one of the most aggressive types of breast cancer. The acute edematous infiltration of the skin and breast is met with occasionally, and it is without doubt the most acute and fatal form of cancer found in the breast. Such cases as these have been mistaken for inflammation, but knowledge of the probability of this affection being cancerous should prevent such a mistake from being made. Here, we review the current epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic modalities, and treatment of IBC.

Keywords

IBC Mastitis Mammography HER2 Modified radical mastectomy 

References

  1. 1.
    Hance KW, Anderson WF, Devesa SS, Young HA, Levine PH. Trends in inflammatory breast carcinoma incidence and survival: the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program at the National Cancer Institute. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97:966–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Taylor GW, Meltzer A. Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast. Am J Cancer. 1938;33:33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bonnier P, Charpin C, Lejeune C, Romain S, Tubiana N, Beedassy B, et al. Inflammatory carcinomas of the breast: a clinical, pathological, or a clinical and pathological definition? Int J Cancer. 1995;62:382–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamauchi H, Woodward WA, Valero V, Alvarez RH, Lucci A, Buchholz TA, et al. Inflammatory breast cancer: what we know and what we need to learn. Oncologist. 2012;17:891–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson WF, Schairer C, Chen BE, Hance KW, Levine PH. Epidemiology of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Breast Dis. 2006;22(1):9–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang S, Parker SL, Pham T, Buzdar AU, Hursting SD. Inflammatory breast carcinoma incidence and survival. Cancer. 1998;82(12):2366–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wingo PA, Jamison PM, Young JL, Gargiullo P. Population-based statistics for women diagnosed with inflammatory breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2004;15(3):321–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jaiyesimi IA, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi G. Inflammatory breast cancer: a review. J Clin Oncol. 1992;10:1014–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Woodward WA, Cristofanilli M. Inflammatory breast cancer. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2009;19:4.. WB Saunders.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robertson FM, Bondy M, Yang W, Yamauchi H, Wiggins S, Kamrudin S, et al. Inflammatory breast cancer: the disease, the biology, the treatment. CA Cancer J Clin. 2010;60(6):351–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Scotti V, Desideri I, Meattini I, Cataldo VD, Cecchini S, Petrucci A, et al. Management of inflammatory breast cancer: focus on radiotherapy with an evidence-based approach. Cancer Treat Rev. 2013;39(2):119–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haagensen CD. Diseases of the breast. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1971. p. 576–84.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grren F, Page D, Flemming I, Fritz AG, Balch CM, Haller DG, et al. AJCC cancer staging manual. 6th ed; 2002. p. 221–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schairer C, Soliman AS, Omar S, Khaled H, Eissa S, Ayed FB, et al. Assessment of diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer cases at two cancer centers in Egypt and Tunisia. Cancer Med. 2013;2(2):178–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shenkier T, Weir L, Levine M, Olivotto I, Whelan T, Reyno L, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the care and treatment of breast cancer. CMJA. 2004;170:983–94.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dawood S, Merajver SD, Viens P, Vermeulen PB, Swain SM, Buchholz TA, et al. International expert panel on inflammatory breast cancer: consensus statement for standardized diagnosis and treatment. Annals Oncol. 2011;22:511–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ellis DL, Teitelbaum SL. Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast. A pathologic definition. Cancer. 1974;33(4):1045–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boussen H, Bouzaiene H, Ben Hassouna J, Dhiab T, Khomsi F, Benna F, et al. Inflammatory breast cancer in Tunisia. Cancer. 2010;116:2730–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Overmoyer BA. Inflammatory breast cancer: novel preoperative therapies. Clin Breast Cancer. 2010;10(1):27–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dawood S, Broglio K, Gong Y, Yang WT, Cristofanilli M, Kau SW, et al. Prognostic significance of HER-2 status in women with inflammatory breast cancer. Cancer. 2008;112(9):1905–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gonzalez Angulo AM, Sneige N, Buzdar AU, Valero V, Kau SW, Broglio K, et al. p53 expression as a prognostic marker in inflammatory breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(18):6215–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gong Y, González Angulo AM, Broglio K, Huo L, Sneige N, Cen P, et al. Expression of Notch-1 and beta-catenin: defining the molecular portrait of inflammatory breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006;100:299.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kleer CG, Griffith KA, Sabel MS, Gallagher G, van Golen KL, Wu ZF, et al. RhoC-GTPase is a novel tissue biomarker associated with biologically aggressive carcinomas of the breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005;93(2):101–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yang WT, Le-Petross HT, Macapinlac H, Carkaci S, Gonzalez Angulo AM, Dawood S, et al. Inflammatory breast cancer: PET/CT, MRI, mammography, and sonography findings. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;109(3):417–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chow CK. Imaging in inflammatory breast carcinoma. Breast Dis. 2006;22(1):45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gunhan Bilgen I, Ustun EE, Memis A. Inflammatory breast carcinoma: mammographic, ultrasonographic, clinical, and pathologic findings in 142 cases 1. Radiology. 2001;223(3):829–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vetto JT. Breast diseases in males. In: Management of breast diseases. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 471–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Le Petross H, Uppendahl L, Stafford J. Sonographic features of inflammatory breast cancer. Semin Roentgenol. 2011;46:275–9. WB Saunders.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Uematsu T. MRI findings of inflammatory breast cancer, locally advanced breast cancer, and acute mastitis: T2-weighted images can increase the specificity of inflammatory breast cancer. Breast Cancer. 2012;19(4):289–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Danforth DN Jr, Aloj L, Carrasquillo JA, Bacharach SL, Chow C, Zujewski J, et al. The role of 18F-FDG-PET in the local/regional evaluation of women with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002;75(2):135–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Eubank WB, Mankoff DA. Evolving role of positron emission tomography in breast cancer imaging. Semin Nucl Med. 2005;35:84–99.. WB SaundersPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eubank WB, Mankoff DA, Takasugi J, Vesselle H, Eary JF, Shanley TJ, et al. 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to detect mediastinal or internal mammary metastases in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(15):3516–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Iniesta MD, Mooney CJ, Merajver SD. Inflammatory breast cancer: what are the treatment options? Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10(18):2987–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cristofanilli M, Buzdar AU, Sneige N, Smith T, Wasaff B, Ibrahim N, et al. Paclitaxel in the multimodality treatment for inflammatory breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2001;92(7):1775–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ueno NT, Buzdar AU, Singletary SE, Ames FC, McNeese MD, Holmes FA, et al. Combined-modality treatment of inflammatory breast carcinoma: twenty years of experience at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1997;40(4):321–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Koh EH, Buzdar AU, Ames FC, Singletary SE, McNeese MD, Frye D, et al. Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast: results of a combined-modality approach—MD Anderson Cancer Center experience. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1990;27(2):94–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Buzdar AU, Singletary SE, Booser DJ, Frye DK, Wasaff B, Hortobagyi GN. Combined modality treatment of stage III and inflammatory breast cancer. MD Anderson Cancer Center experience. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 1995;4(4):715–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Baldini E, Gardin G, Evangelista G, Prochilo T, Collecchi P, Lionetto R. Long-term results of combined-modality therapy for inflammatory breast carcinoma. Clin Breast Cancer. 2004;5(5):358–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Harris EE, Schultz D, Bertsch H, Fox K, Glick J, Solin LJ. Ten-year outcome after combined modality therapy for inflammatory breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003;55(5):1200–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Low JA, Berman AW, Steinberg SM, Danforth DN, Lippman ME, Swain SM. Long-term follow-up for locally advanced and inflammatory breast cancer patients treated with multimodality therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(20):4067–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Van Pelt AE, Mohsin S, Elledge RM, Hilsenbeck SG, Gutierrez M, Lucci A Jr, et al. Neoadjuvant trastuzumab and docetaxel in patients with breast cancer: preliminary results. Clin Breast Cancer. 2003;4(5):348–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Burstein HJ, Harris LN, Gelman R, Lester SC, Nunes RA, Kaelin CM, et al. Preoperative therapy with trastuzumab and paclitaxel followed by sequential adjuvant doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide for HER2 overexpressing stage II or III breast cancer: a pilot study. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(1):46–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gianni L, Eiermann W, Semiglazov V, Manikhas A, Lluch A, Tjulandin S, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab followed by adjuvant trastuzumab versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone, in patients with HER2-positive locally advanced breast cancer (the NOAH trial): a randomised controlled superiority trial with a parallel HER2-negative cohort. Lancet. 2010;375:377–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Conti F, Carpano S, Sergi D, Di Lauro L, Amodio A, Vici P, et al. High-dose CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, fluorouracil) as primary chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer: long-term results. La Clinicaterapeutica. 2006;158(4):331–41.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Viens P, Palangie T, Janvier M, Fabbro M, Roche H, Delozier T, et al. First-line high-dose sequential chemotherapy with rG-CSF and repeated blood stem cell transplantation in untreated inflammatory breast cancer: toxicity and response (PEGASE 02 trial). Br J Cancer. 1999;81(3):449.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Specht J, Gralow JR. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2009;19:222–8. WB Saunders.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Perez CA, Graham ML, Taylor ME, Levy JF, Mortimer JE, Philpott GW, et al. Management of locally advanced carcinoma of the breast I. Noninflammatory. Cancer. 1994;74:453–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Panades M, Olivotto IA, Speers CH, Shenkier T, Olivotto TA, Weir L, et al. Evolving treatment strategies for inflammatory breast cancer: a population-based survival analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(9):1941–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kell R, Morrow M. Surgical aspects of inflammatory breast cancer. Breast Dis. 2005;22:67–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stearns V, Ewing CA, Slack R, Penannen MF, Hayes DF, Tsangaris TN. Sentinel lymphadenectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer may reliably represent the axilla except for inflammatory breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2002;9(3):235–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pisansky TM, Schaid DJ, Loprinzi CL, Donohue JH, Schray MF, Schomberg PJ. Inflammatory breast cancer: integration of irradiation, surgery, and chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol. 1992;15(5):376–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Thomas F, Arriagada R, Spielmann M, Mouriesse H, Chevalier TL, Fontaine F, Tursz T. Pattern of failure in patients with inflammatory breast cancer treated by alternating radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Cancer. 1995;76(11):2286–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fleming RD, Asmar L, Buzdar AU, McNeese MD, Ames FC, Ross MI, et al. Effectiveness of mastectomy by response to induction chemotherapy for control in inflammatory breast carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 1997;4(6):452–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Abrous Anane S, Savignoni A, Daveau C, Pierga JY, Gautier C, Reyal F, et al. Management of inflammatory breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79(4):1055–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bristol IJ, Woodward WA, Strom EA, Cristofanilli M, Domain D, Singletary SE, et al. Locoregional treatment outcomes after multimodality management of inflammatory breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;72(2):474–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Damast S, Ho AY, Montgomery L, Fornier MN, Ishill N, Elkin E, et al. Locoregional outcomes of inflammatory breast cancer patients treated with standard fractionation radiation and daily skin bolus in the taxane era. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;77(4):1105–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Khatcheressian JL, Wolff AC, Smith TJ, Grunfeld E, Muss HB, Vogel VG, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology 2006 update of the breast cancer follow-up and management guidelines in the adjuvant setting. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(31):5091–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of MedicineMagee-Women’s Hospital of UPMCPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryTurgut Ozal Medical Center, Inonu University Faculty of MedicineMalatyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical OncologyMagee-Womens Hospital, University of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations