Time and Synchronization in Telecoms

  • N. L. BiriukovEmail author
  • N. R. TriskaEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 560)


The chapter deals with the main principles and trends in the field of synchronization in telecommunications. The presented approach is based on the respective ITU-T research and standardization activities as well as the authors’ own studies and academic subjects in Institute of Telecommunication Systems of “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”. A significant part of the results were obtained by the authors during their work at the Ukrainian Research Institute of Communications – UNDIZ (Kyiv, Ukraine).

The fundamental definitions of network synchronization and transmission modes as well as the actual requirements for frequency synchronization (FS), phase (PS) and time of day (ToD) synchronization and their metrics are analyzed. The relationships and limits of FS and PS characteristics are proposed based on the FS and PS conceptions indivisibility. The two-way precise time protocol (PTP) is analyzed subject to time delay random component and frequency deviation. The analysis of both well-known and new metrics evaluating the synchronization accuracy was performed. The PTP time stamps exchange was studied using Maximum Likelihood method and minimal time interval errors mTIE.

Results and challenges for further study are summarized in the Conclusions.


Synchronization Frequency Phase Slips Synchronous mode Plesiochronous mode Synchronous transmission way Asynchronous transmission way Metrics Time interval TIE MTIE MTIE MATIE MAFE PTP PDV 



Experimental studies and computer modeling were carried out with the support and useful communication of S. Mikhaylichenko and A. Korzh (Vodafone Ukraine), N. Legotin and N. Mokhovikov (ALTO Ltd, Russia) and Dr. Andreja Jarc (Meainberg, Germany). Also, the authors would like to thank M. Koltunov, M. Shwartz and A. Ryzhkov (MTUCI, Russia), D. Shevchenko (MTS Russia), D. Schneuwly and S. Kiss (Oscilloquartz, Switzerland) for their well-timed support and useful discussions.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”KyivUkraine

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