Advertisement

Interventions in Prison Nurseries

  • Mary W. ByrneEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

A prison nursery is dedicated housing inside a criminal justice facility where incarcerated pregnant women continue to co-reside with and be the primary caregiver for their infants for a defined period of time following birth. Available globally, prison nurseries have been variously appraised as inadequate substitutes for social welfare in impoverished countries or as protections for child development and attachment where supportive resources are provided. Existence of nurseries in the USA has been relatively rare and erratic, with between one and thirteen state corrections departments supporting prison nurseries at any point in history. The exception is the New York State facility which is over a century old. Outcome studies for prison nurseries have primarily been descriptive based on observations, surveys, official records, and interviews. Evidence for reduction in criminal recidivism enhanced family support, and re-entry success remains contradictory or under-reported. The humanizing effects of infant presence on prisoners and staff and maternal grief and worry regarding children are consistent themes. Child development outcomes have been measured in the UK, Spain, and the USA, the latter with the most promising results associated with supportive programs. Community alternatives to maternal incarceration are receiving increasing attention to avoid separation of one or more children from parents.

Keywords

Prison nursery Maternal incarceration State prison Jail Child separation from parent Alternative caregiver 

References

  1. Acoca, L., & Raeder, M. S. (1999). Severing family ties: The plight of nonviolent female offenders and their children. Stanford Law and Policy Review, 11, 133–143.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Water, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.Google Scholar
  3. Amnesty International USA. (1999). Not part of my sentence: Violations of the human rights of women in custody. New York: Amnesty International USA.Google Scholar
  4. Amnesty International USA. (2006). Abuse of women in custody: Sexual misconduct and shackling of pregnant women. New York: Amnesty International USA.Google Scholar
  5. Baradon, T., Fonagy, P., Bland, K., Lenard, K., & Sleed, M. (2008). New beginnings: An experience-based programme addressing the attachment relationship between mothers and their babies in prison. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 34(2), 240–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baunach, P. J. (1985). Mothers in prison. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  7. Bayley, N. (1993). Bayley scales of infant development (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation Harcourt Brace and Company.Google Scholar
  8. Belknap, J. (2007). The invisible woman: Gender, crime, and justice. Belmont, CA: Thompson-Wadworth.Google Scholar
  9. Bloom, B. (1993). Why punish the children? A reappraisal of the children of incarcerated mothers in America. San Francisco, CA: National Council on Crime and Delinquency.Google Scholar
  10. Bloom, B. (1995). Imprisoned mothers. In K. Gabel & D. Johnston (Eds.), Children of incarcerated parents (pp. 21–30). New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  11. Borelli, J., Goshin, L., Joestl, S., Clark, J., & Byrne, M. W. (2010). Attachment organization in a sample of incarcerated mothers: Distribution of classifications and predictive associations with clinical symptoms, perceptions of parenting competency, and social support. Attachment and Human Development, 12(4), 355–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boudin, K. (1998). Lessons from a mother’s program in prison: A psychosocial approach supports women and their children. Women & Therapy, 21(1), 103–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boudouris, J. (1983). Parents in prison: Addressing the needs of families. Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.Google Scholar
  14. Brodie, D. L. (1982). Babies behind bars: Should incarcerated mothers be allowed to keep their newborns with them in prison. University of Richmond Law Review, 16, 677–692.Google Scholar
  15. Byrne, M. W. (2005). Conducting research as a visiting scientist in a women’s prison. Journal of Professional Nursing, 21(4), 223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Byrne, M. W. (2008). Evidence from a prison nursery. Paper presented At the Third Annual Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues and National Leaders of the Judiciary, Washington, DC, June 25.Google Scholar
  17. Byrne, M. W. (2009). Before the next surge: An assessment of the contemporary prison nursery movement. Women, Girls, and Criminal Justice, 10(5), 65, 74, 77–79.Google Scholar
  18. Byrne, M. W., Goshin, L. S., & Joestl, S. S. (2010). Intergenerational transmission of attachment for infants raised in a prison nursery. Attachment & Human Development, 12(4), 375–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Byrne, M. W., Hajjawi, G., Hughes, M., & Fabi, T. (2007). Successful reentry of women and children: Against all odds. 12th National Workshop on Adult and Juvenile Female Offenders, Association on Programs for Female Offenders, Baltimore, MD, October 23.Google Scholar
  20. California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. (2009). Annual report: Division of Addiction and Recovery Services. Sacramento: State of California.Google Scholar
  21. Capute, A. J., & Accardo, P. J. (1996). The infant neurodevelopmental assessment: A clinical interpretive manual for CAT-CLAMS in the first two years of life, part 1. Current Problems in Pediatrics, 26(7), 238–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carlson, J. R. (1998). Evaluating the effectiveness of a live-in nursery within a women’s prison. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 27(1/2), 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Carlson, J. R. (2001). Prison nursery 2000: A five-year review of the prison nursery at the Nebraska Correctional Center for Women. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 33(3), 75–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carlson, J. R. (2009). Prison nurseries: A pathway to crime-free futures. Corrections Compendium, 34(1), 17–24.Google Scholar
  25. Catan, L. (1988). The development of young children in HMP mother and baby units. Working Papers in Psychology. East Sussex, UK: University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  26. Catan, L. (1992). Infants with mothers in prison. In R. Shaw (Ed.), Prisoners’ children: What are the issues? (pp. 13–28). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Cook, S., & Davies, S. (1999). Harsh punishment: International experiences of women’s imprisonment. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Coplan, J. (1993). Early language milestones. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  29. Correctional Institution Inspection Committee (2005). Evaluation and inspection report on the Ohio reformatory for women. Columbus, OH: Correctional Institution Inspection Committee.Google Scholar
  30. Craig, S. C. (2009). A historical review of mother and child programs for incarcerated women. The Prison Journal, 89(1_suppl), 35S–53S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. DeHart, D. D. (2008). Pathways to prison: Impact of victimization in the lives of incarcerated women. Violence Against Women, 14(12), 1362–1381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Enos, S. (2001). Mothering from the inside. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  33. Fearn, N. E., & Parker, K. (2004). Washington State’s residential parenting program: An integrated public health, education, and social service resource for pregnant inmates and prison mothers. Californian Journal of Health Promotion, 2(4), 34–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Flynn, E. G. (1963). The Alderson story: My life as a political prisoner. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  35. Fonagy, P., Target, M., Steele, H., & Steele, M. (1998). Reflective-functioning manual, version 5.0, for application to adult attachment interviews (pp. 161–162). London: University College London.Google Scholar
  36. Frankenberg, W. K., & Dodds, J. B. (1992). Denver II training manual. Denver, CO: Denver Developmental Materials, Inc.Google Scholar
  37. Gabel, K., & Girard, K. (1995). Long-term care nurseries in prisons: A descriptive study. In K. Gabel & D. Johnston (Eds.), Children of incarcerated parents (pp. 237–254). New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  38. Gabel, K., & Johnston, D. (Eds.). (1995). Children of incarcerated parents. New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  39. Gibaud-Wallston, J. A. (1977). Self-esteem and situational stress: Factors related to sense of competence in new parents (Doctoral dissertation). George Peabody College for Teachers.Google Scholar
  40. Harris, J. (1988). They always called us ladies. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Harris, J. (1993). Babies in prison. Zero to Three, 13(3), 38–41.Google Scholar
  42. Jacobs, R. (2008). Sentence for two. Portland, OR: Angel Productions.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jiménez, J. M., & Palacios, J. (1998). Ninos y madres en prision. Desarrollo psicosociobiologico de los ninos residents en centros penitenciaros. Madrid: Ministerio del Interior y Ministerio de Trabajo y Asunto Sociales.Google Scholar
  44. Jiménez, J. M., & Palacios, J. (2003). When home is in jail: Child development in Spanish penitentiary units. Infant and Child Development: An International Journal of Research and Practice, 12(5), 461–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kauffman, K. (2001). Mothers in prison. Corrections Today, 63(1), 62–65.Google Scholar
  46. Kauffman, K. (2002). Prison nurseries: New beginnings and second chances. Women, Girls & Criminal Justice, 3(1), 1–2, 14–15.Google Scholar
  47. McCall, C., Casteel, J., & Shaw, N. S. (1985). Pregnancy in prison: A needs assessment of perinatal outcome in three California penal institutions. Sacramento: California Department of Health Services.Google Scholar
  48. Morash, M., Bynum, T. S., & Koons, B. A. (1998). Women offenders: Programming needs and promising approaches. (NCJ 171667). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  49. Morgan, S. M., & Winship, C. (2007). Counterfactuals and causal inference: Methods and principles for social science. New York: Cambridge Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Morris, A., & Kinghi, V. (1999). Addressing women’s needs or empty rhetoric? An examination of New Zealand’s policy for women in prison. In S. Cook & S. Davies (Eds.), Harsh punishment: International experiences of women’s imprisonment (pp. 142–159). Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Morton, J. B., & Williams, D. M. (1998). Mother/child bonding. Corrections Today, 60(7), 98–104.Google Scholar
  52. Mumola, C. J. (2000). Incarcerated parents and their children (NCJ 182335). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  53. National Association of Women Judges. (2007). Annual report 2007. Washington, D.C.: National Association of Women Judges.Google Scholar
  54. National Institute of Justice. (2005). Reentry programs for women inmates. National Institute of Justice Journal, 252, 2–7.Google Scholar
  55. Paloutzian, R. F., & Ellison, C. W. (1982). Loneliness, spiritual well-being, and the quality of life. In L. A. Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy (pp. 224–237). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  56. Pennix, P. R. (1999). An analysis of mothers in the federal prison system. Corrections Compendium, 24(12), 4–6.Google Scholar
  57. Pollock, J. M. (2003). Parenting programs in women’s prisons. Women & Criminal Justice, 14(1), 131–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Quaker Council for European Affairs. (2007). Mothers in prison: A review of the conditions in member states of the Council of Europe. Geneva: Quaker Council for European Affairs.Google Scholar
  59. Quinney, R. (1991). The way of peace: On crime, suffering, and service. In H. E. Pepinsky & R. Quinney (Eds.), Criminology as peacemaking (pp. 3–13). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Radosh, P. F. (1988). Inmate mothers: Legislative solutions to a difficult problem. Journal of Crime and Justice, 11(1), 61–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Radosh, P. F. (2002). Reflections on women’s crime and mothers in prison: A peacemaking approach. Crime & Delinquency, 48(2), 300–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Robertson, O. (2008). Children imprisoned by circumstance. New York: Quaker United Nations Office.Google Scholar
  64. Rosenberg, M. (1964). Society and the adolescent child. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Roulet, E., O’Rourke, P., & Reichers, M. (1993). The Children’s Centre—Bedford Hills correctional facility. Paper presented at the fourth North American Conference on the Family and Corrections, Quebec City, October.Google Scholar
  66. Ryder, E. (1884). Elizabeth Fry: Life and labors of the eminent philanthropist, preacher, and prison reformer. New York: E. Walker’s Son.Google Scholar
  67. Schehr, J. M. (2004). Reflections from the outside: The stories of three women who lived together in a prison nursery. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest.Google Scholar
  68. Sered, S., & Norton-Hawk, M. (2008). Disrupted lives, fragmented care: Illness experiences of criminalized women. Women and Health, 48(1), 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shearer, R. A. (2003). Identifying the special needs of female offenders. Federal Probation, 67, 46–51.Google Scholar
  70. Shepard, D., & Zemans, E. S. (1950). Prison babies: A study of some aspects of the care and treatment of pregnant inmates and their infants in training schools, reformatories, and prisons. Chicago: John Howard Association.Google Scholar
  71. Siefert, K., & Pimlott, S. (2001). Improving pregnancy outcome during imprisonment: A model residential care program. Social Work, 46(2), 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Silverman, S. W. (2005). When the state has custody: The fragile bond of mothers and their infants on the prison nursery. In L. Gunsberg & P. Hymowitz (Eds.), A handbook of divorce and custody: Forensic, developmental and clinical perspectives (pp. 151–160). New York: The Analytic Press/Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar
  73. Snell, T. L., & Morton, D. C. (1994). Women in prison. Survey of state prison inmates 1991 (NCJ 145321). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.Google Scholar
  74. Spitz, R. A. (1945). Hospitalism: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1(1), 53–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Spitz, R. A. (1956). Childhood development phenomena: The influence of mother-child relationships and its disturbances. In K. Soddy (Ed.), Mental health and infant development. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  76. Squires, J., Potter, L. W., & Bricker, D. (1999). The ASQ user’s guide (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  77. Sroufe, L. A. (2005). Attachment and development: A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attachment and Human Development, 7(4), 349–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. State of New York Department of Correctional Services, Division of Program Planning, Research and Evaluations. (2002). Profile and three year follow-up of Bedford Hills and Taconic Nursery Program participants: 1997 and 1998. Albany: State of New York Department of Correctional Services.Google Scholar
  79. United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child. (2006). A Guide to general comment 7: ‘Implementing child rights in early childhood’. The Hague, The Netherlands: UNICEF/Bernard van Leer Foundation.Google Scholar
  80. Vainik, J. (2008). The reproductive and parental rights of incarcerated mothers. Family Court Review, 46(4), 670–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Schuengel, C., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (1999). Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae. Development and Psychopathology, 11(2), 225–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vaughan, R. (2008). Innovation! American Journal of Public Health, 98(8), 1353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ware, J. E., Kosinski, M., & Gandek, B. (2000). SF-36 health survey. Manual and interpretation guide. Lincoln, RI: Quality Metric Incorporated.Google Scholar
  84. Weintraub, J. F. (1987). Mothers and children in prison. Corrections Compendium, 11(17), 1, 5–12.Google Scholar
  85. West, S. G., Duan, N., Pequegnat, W., Gaist, P., Des Jarlais, D. C., Holtgrave, D. … Mullen, P. D. (2008). Alternatives to the randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health, 98(8), 1359–1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Whitehead, D. (2006). The health promoting prison (HPP) and its imperative for nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43(1), 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Women’s Prison Association. Institute on Women and Criminal Justice. (2009). Mothers, infants, and imprisonment. A national look at prison nurseries and community-based alternatives. New York: Women’s Prison Association.Google Scholar
  88. Zwerman, G., & Gardner, G. (1986). Obstacles to research in a state prison: Regulated, segregated and under surveillance. Qualitative Sociology, 9(3), 293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Nursing and College of Physicians & SurgeonsColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations