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Ultrasound Guidance in Embryo Transfer

  • Alberto Revelli
  • Tomer Tur-Kaspa
  • Edmond Confino
Chapter

Abstract

A quick, atraumatic, and technically accurate embryo transfer (ET) has always been regarded as quintessential for the achievement of high pregnancy rates in human IVF. There are several studied factors that may affect the success of ET: ease of the transfer, location of the embryo deposition, type of catheter, and the level of experience of the physician performing the transfer. Ultrasound (US) guidance allows to discharge the embryos in the optimal area of the uterine cavity, 1.0–1.5 cm from the fundus, and was shown in prospective randomized studies as well as meta-analysis to significantly increase the rate of easy transfers, embryo implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates vs. clinical touch ET. The use of either transabdominal or transvaginal US imaging results in similar success rates. US observation of the marker bubbles immediately after ET has an obvious psychological value to the patients, reaffirms optimal embryo deposition, and enables physicians to teach ET to young doctors without a decline in IVF results. The disadvantages of US guidance in ET are the need for an assistant and the inconvenience for patients caused by a full bladder. It is highly recommended for the reader to review the 2017 ASRM practice guidelines for ET. This chapter will review the data available today on the important role of US guidance in ET.

Keywords

Embryo transfer (ET) Ultrasound guidance ET ART outcome Frozen embryo transfer (FET) Trail transfer Embryo transfer technique 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Revelli
    • 1
  • Tomer Tur-Kaspa
    • 2
  • Edmond Confino
    • 3
  1. 1.Sant’Anna Hospital, University of Turin, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyTurinItaly
  2. 2.Wesleyan UniversityMiddletownUSA
  3. 3.Feinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern UniversityChicagoUSA

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