Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. This polysaccharide has received a great attention due to its biocompatibility, low toxicity, biodegradable, furthermore can be used into different shapes, such as beads, hydrogels, powders, films and membranes. Chitosan hydrogels may be formed by different mechanisms, as physical association or chemically cross-linked, thus can vary its geometries, formulations and shapes. Usually, hydrogels are prepared using a conventional sol-gel process, where polymer is dissolved in dilute acid to form an aqueous solution, after complete dissolution the cross-linking agents are subsequently incorporated, and the solution/gel transition depends on the number cross-links between the polymer chains and the cross-linking agents, and these should be enough until reaching the formation of a network. The chitosan hydrogels are formed from cross-linking of hydrogen bonds, hydrophilic interactions and crystalline groups of chitosan present in the sol-gel.
Chitosan hydrogels have been largely used in drug delivery systems, wastewater and dye remediation, and tissue engineering supporting cell attachment and growth. In the food industry, chitosan hydrogels are used to maintain and/or improve the perception of flavor, release of fragrance compounds and increase shelf life. In the biomedical and biotechnological fields, these are used for controlled release formulations, for example, of compounds chemicals, volatiles, or proteins. Chitosan hydrogels can be used in dressing to adsorb the secretion of the injured area and release water on the wound surface, thus keeping it hydrated. Thus, the researches for employment of this material have been increasingly developed due to its favorable properties, such as durability, permeability, flexibility and its wide applicability.
KeywordsChitosan Polysaccharide Hydrogel Scaffold Modification Cross-linked Biomaterial 3D networks Flexible Porosity
The authors would like to thank CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel)–Finance Code: 001 and CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) for the financial support.
- Anitha A, Sowmya S, Kumar PTS (2014) Chitin and chitosan in selected biomedical applications. Prog Polym Sci 39:1644–1667. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2014.02.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Berger R, Christina T, Miranda A, Pessoa P, Barbosa MA, Lima D, Manuela M, Pintado E, Saraiva MP (2018) Chitosan produced from mucorales fungi using agroindustrial by-products and its efficacy to inhibit colletotrichum species. Int J Biol Macromol 108:635–641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.11.178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Crini G, Badot PM (2008) Application of chitosan, a natural aminopolysaccharide, for dye removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption processes using batch studies: a review of recent literature. Prog Polym Sci 33:399–447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2007.11.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dash M, Chiellini F, Ottenbrite RM, Chiellini E (2011) Chitosan – a versatile semi–synthetic polymer in biomedical applications. Prog Polym Sci 36:981–1014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2011.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization the United Nations (2018) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO/UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Ferfera-Harrar H, Aiouaz N, Dairi N (2015) Synthesis and properties of chitosan-graft polyacrylamide/gelatin superabsorbent composites for wastewater purification. Chem Mole Eng 9:849–856. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1107848
- Ishihara M, Fujita M, Obara K, Hattori H, Nakamura S, Nambu M, Kiyosawa T, Kanatani Y, Takase B, Kikuchi M, Maehara T (2006) Controlled releases of FGF-2 and paclitaxel from chitosan hydrogels and their subsequent effects on wound repair, angiogenesis, and tumor growth. Curr Drug Deliv 3:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kuroiwa T, Takada H, Shogen A, Saito K, Kobayashi I, Uemura K, Kanazawa A (2017) Cross-linkable chitosan-based hydrogel microbeads with pH-responsive adsorption properties for organic dyes prepared using size-tunable microchannel emulsification technique. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 514:69–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2016.11.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mahdavinia GR, Pourjavadi A, Hosseinzadeh H, Zohuriaan MJ (2004) Modified chitosan 4. Superabsorbent hydrogels from poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) grafted chitosan with salt-and pH-responsiveness properties. Eur Polym J 40:1399–1407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2004.01.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Paloma MT, Yewande E, Guillermo T, Susana T (2003) Release of amoxicillin from polyionic complexes of chitosan and poly (acrylic acid): study of polymer/polymer and polymer/drug interactions within the network structure. Biomaterials 24:1499–1506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00512-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ratner BD, Hoffman A, Schoen FJ, Lemons JE (eds) (1996) Biomaterials science: an introduction to materials in medicine. Academic, San Diego. 484pGoogle Scholar
- Rinaudo M (2006) Chitin and chitosan: properties and applications. Prog Polym Sci 31:603–632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2006.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsuchida E, Abe K (1982) Interactions between macromolecules in solution and Intermacromolecular complexes. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 1–119Google Scholar
- Vakili M, Rafatullah M, Salamatinia B, Abdullah AZ, Ibrahim MH, Tan KB, Amouzgar P (2014) Application of chitosan and its derivatives as adsorbents for dye removal from water and wastewater: a review. Carbohydr Polym 113:115–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.07.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xie W, Gao Q, Guo Z, Wang D, Gao F, Wang X, Zhao L (2017) Injectable and self-healing thermosensitive magnetic hydrogel for asynchronous control release of doxorubicin and docetaxel to treat triple-negative breast cancer. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:33660–33673. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b10699 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zheng L, Wang C, Shu Y, Yan X, Li L (2015) Utilization of diatomite/chitosan–Fe (III) composite for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater: equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 468:129–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.12.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar