Advertisement

Integrated Water Resources Management in Iran

  • Erfan GoharianEmail author
  • Mohamad Azizipour
Chapter

Abstract

Iran is dealing with various water resources challenges. Drying lakes and rivers, declining groundwater resources, water supply rationing and disruptions, agricultural losses, and ecosystem damages are just few of the challenges. This chapter introduces how current management of water resources in Iran led to water crisis in the country, which was formerly renowned as a pioneer of sustainable water management. Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid region, and the combined actions of natural and human factors caused the modern water-related crisis. Although there is no control over natural factors, sustainable water resources planning and management could be achieved by implementing integrated water resources management strategies. This chapter particularly focuses on two of the most vital challenges the country is dealing with: one is mismanagement of the Zayandehrud River basin and the other one is the tragic drying of Lake Urmia. After reviewing the causing problems for each case, we briefly introduce some of the opportunities offered by IWRM practices and identify possible main strategies for the future perspective of management of water resources in Iran.

Keywords

Zayandehrud River basin Lake Urmia Water resources Impact 

References

  1. AghaKouchak A et al (2015) Aral Sea syndrome desiccates Lake Urmia: call for action. J Great Lakes Res 41:307–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Eimanifar A, Mohebbi F (2007) Urmia Lake (Northwest Iran): a brief review. Saline Syst 3:5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fathian F, Morid S, Kahya E (2015) Identification of trends in hydrological and climatic variables in Urmia Lake basin, Iran. Theor Appl Climatol 119:443–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Forrester JW (1997) Industrial dynamics. J Oper Res Soc 48:1037–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ghaheri M, Baghal-Vayjooee M, Naziri J (1999) Lake Urmia, Iran: a summary review. Int J Salt Lake Res 8:19–22Google Scholar
  6. Gohari A, Eslamian S, Mirchi A, Abedi-Koupaei J, Bavani AM, Madani K (2013) Water transfer as a solution to water shortage: a fix that can backfire. J Hydrol 491:23–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goharian E, Burian SJ, Lillywhite J, Hile R (2016) Vulnerability assessment to support integrated water resources management of metropolitan water supply systems. J Water Resour Plan Manag 143:04016080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Günther R (1899) Contributions to the geography of Lake Urmi and its neighbourhood. Geogr J 14:504–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hansen J et al (2007) Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS model study. Atmos Chem Phys 7:2287–2312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jalali B (1984) A report on Urmia Lake Tehran, Ministry of EnergyGoogle Scholar
  11. Karamouz M, Goharian E, Nazif S (2013) Reliability assessment of the water supply systems under uncertain future extreme climate conditions. Earth Interact 17:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kelts K, Shahrabi M (1986) Holocene sedimentology of hypersaline Lake Urmia, northwestern Iran. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 54:105–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Madani K (2014) Water management in Iran: what is causing the looming crisis? J Environ Stud Sci 4:315–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Madani K, Mariño MA (2009) System dynamics analysis for managing Iran’s Zayandeh-Rud river basin. Water Resour Manag 23:2163–2187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Madani K, AghaKouchak A, Mirchi A (2016) Iran’s socio-economic drought: challenges of a water-bankrupt nation. Iran Stud 49:997–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Murray-Rust H, Sally H, Salemi H, Mamanpoush A (2000) An overview of the hydrology of the Zayandeh Rud Basin IAERI-IWMI Research Reports 3Google Scholar
  17. Murray-Rust H, Salemi H, Droogers P (2002) Water resources development and water utilization in the Zayandeh Rud basin, Iran IAERI-IWMI Research Report 13Google Scholar
  18. Safavi H, Bahreini G (2009) Conjunctive simulation of surface water and ground water resources under uncertainty Iranian. J Sci Technol 33:79Google Scholar
  19. Safavi HR, Golmohammadi MH, Sandoval-Solis S (2016) Scenario analysis for integrated water resources planning and management under uncertainty in the Zayandehrud river basin. J Hydrol 539:625–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sarhadi A, Soltani S (2013) Determination of water requirements of the Gavkhuni wetland, Iran: a hydrological approach. J Arid Environ 98:27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Saysel AK, Barlas Y, Yenigün O (2002) Environmental sustainability in an agricultural development project: a system dynamics approach. J Environ Manag 64:247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Simonovic SP (2003) Assessment of water resources through system dynamics simulation: from global issues to regional solutions. In: System Sciences, 2003. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Hawaii International Conference on, 2003. IEEE, p 9Google Scholar
  23. Stave KA (2003) A system dynamics model to facilitate public understanding of water management options in Las Vegas, Nevada. J Environ Manag 67:303–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tidwell VC, Passell HD, Conrad SH, Thomas RP (2004) System dynamics modeling for community-based water planning: application to the Middle Rio Grande. Aquat Sci 66:357–372.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00027-004-0722-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. UNEP G (2012) The drying of Iran’s Lake Urmia and its environmental consequences. J Environ Dev 2:128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wurtsbaugh WA, Gliwicz ZM (2001) Limnological control of brine shrimp population dynamics and cyst production in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Hydrobiologia 466(1–3):119Google Scholar
  27. Xu Z, Takeuchi K, Ishidaira H, Zhang X (2002) Sustainability analysis for Yellow River water resources using the system dynamics approach. Water Resour Manag 16:239–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yang C-C, Chang L-C, Ho C-C (2008) Application of system dynamics with impact analysis to solve the problem of water shortages in Taiwan. Water Resour Manag 22:1561–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zarghami M (2011) Effective watershed management; case study of Urmia Lake, Iran. Lake Reserv Manag 27:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringShahid Chamran University of AhvazAhvazIran
  3. 3.School of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations