The Phytochemical Composition, Biological Effects and Biotechnological Approaches to the Production of High-Value Essential Oil from Geranium

  • Lokesh Kumar Narnoliya
  • Jyoti Singh Jadaun
  • Sudhir P. SinghEmail author


Geraniaceae family plants are highly reputed aromatic and medicinal perennial branched herbs. The high economic value of these plants is due to their secondary metabolites, especially essential oil of foliage, which is a complex mixture of volatile phytochemicals, such as terpenes, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and phenols. The main phytoconstituents of the essential oil belong to the terpenoid group of metabolites, such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and their esters. Of these, geraniol, linalool, citronellol and their esters (50–70%) generally constitute a major portion of essential oil, responsible for its fragrance. Essential oil is biosynthesized in specialized tissues known as glandular trichomes present in leaves, green branches and fresh flowers. Geraniaceae family plants have been highly useful in the perfumery, cosmetics, aromatherapy, pharmaceuticals and food industries. Several pharmacological properties such as antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous, anti-depressant, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-dysentery, and antidiabetic properties are attributed to the presence of geranium oil. Further, it improves blood circulation, treats congestion, cleans the lymphatic system, strengthens the immune system, and is effective in combating nervousness, constipation, insomnia, anxiety and high blood pressure. The chapter discusses the phytochemical composition, pharmacological properties, genomics of essential oil biosynthetic pathway, enhancement of essential oil yield, and several biotechnological approaches to enhance the quantity as well as quality of essential oil in geranium.


Rose-scented geranium Pelargonium Essential oil Terpene Geraniol 



Benzyl amino purine


1-Deoxy-d-xylulose reductoisomerase


1-Deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase


3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase


2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate


Mevalonic acid



The authors acknowledge the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India. LKN and JSJ acknowledge Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) N-PDF fellowships, PDF/2015/662 and PDF/2016/445, respectively.


  1. Arrigoni-Blank MD, Almeida SA, Oliveira AC, Blank AF (2011) Micropropagation and acclimatization of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.). Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais 13(3):271–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Babu KG, Kaul VK (2005) Variation in essential oil composition of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) distilled by different distillation techniques. Flavour Fragr J 20(2):222–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bi YM, Cammue BP, Goodwin PH, KrishnaRaj S, Saxena PK (1999) Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in scented geranium transformed with a gene encoding the antimicrobial protein Ace-AMP1. Plant Cell Rep 18(10):835–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bigos M, Wasiela M, Kalemba D, Sienkiewicz M (2012) Antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules 17(9):10276–10291PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boase MR, Bradley JM, Borst NK (1998) An improved method for transformation of regal pelargonium (Pelargonium X domesticum Dubonnet) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Sci 139(1):59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boukhris M, Nasri-Ayachi MB, Mezghani I, Bouaziz M, Boukhris M, Sayadi S (2013) Trichomes morphology, structure and essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér.(Geraniaceae). Ind Crop Prod 50:604–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouzenna H, Krichen L (2013) Pelargonium graveolens L’Her. and Artemisia arborescens L. essential oils: chemical composition, antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and insecticidal activity against Rhyzopertha dominica. Nat Prod Res 27(9):841–846PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Cannon JB, Cantrell CL, Astatkie T, Zheljazkov VD (2013) Modification of yield and composition of essential oils by distillation time. Ind Crop Prod 41:214–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carmen G, Hancu G (2014) Antimicrobial and antifungal activity of Pelargonium roseum essential oils. Adv Pharm Bull 4(2):511PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Cassells AC, Carney BF, McCarthy E, McHugh A, Harmey MA (1987) Problems posed by cultivable bacterial endophytes in the establishment of axenic cultures of Pelargonium x domesticum the use of Xanthomonas pelargonii specific ELISA, DNA probes and culture indexing in the screening of antibiotic treated and untreated donor plants. Bacterial and bacteria-like contaminants of plant tissue. Cultures 225:153–162Google Scholar
  11. Chang C, Moll BA, Evenson KB, Guiltinan MJ (1996) In vitro plantlet regeneration from cotyledon, hypocotyl and root explants of hybrid seed geranium. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 45(1):61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen M, Poulter CD (2010) Characterization of thermophilic archaeal isopentenyl phosphate kinases. Biochemistry 49:207–217PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Colling J, Groenewald JH, Makunga NP (2010) Genetic alterations for increased coumarin production lead to metabolic changes in the medicinally important Pelargonium sidoides DC (Geraniaceae). Metab Eng 12(6):561–572PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Croke JT, Cassells AC (1997) Dark induction and genetic stability of somatic embryos of zonal geraniums (Pelargonium x hortorum Baily). Angew Bot 71(3–4):119–124Google Scholar
  15. Debergh P, Maene L (1977) Rapid clonal propagation of pathogen-free Pelargonium plants starting from shoot tips and apical meristems. Acta Hortic 78:449–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Debolt S, Melino V, Ford CM (2007) Ascorbate as a biosynthetic precursor in plants. Ann Bot 99:3–8PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Demarne FE, Van der Walt JJ (1993) Composition of the essential oil of Pelargonium citronellum (Geraniaceae). J Essent Oil Res 5(3):233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Desilets H, Desjardins Y, Bélanger RR (1993) Clonal propagation of Pelargonium x hortorum through tissue culture: effects of salt dilution and growth regulator concentration. Can J Nurs Res 73(3):871–878Google Scholar
  19. Dhananjay S, Atul K, Mishra BN (2010) Essential oil: economic and herbal importance in aromatherapy. Int J Plant Sci 5(2):431–435Google Scholar
  20. Doyle BM, Lawton DK, Cassells AC (1999) Adventitious regeneration in root culture of a selection of Pelargonium x hortorum cultivars: an assessment of caulogenic potential and genetic stability. Acta Hortic 530:225–230Google Scholar
  21. Duchow S, Blaschek W, Classen B (2015) Reproduction of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides via somatic embryogenesis. Planta Med 81(12/13):1169–1174PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Dudareva N, Pichersky E, Gershenzon J (2004) Biochemistry of plant volatiles. Plant Physiol 135:1893–1902PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dunbar KB (1990) Geranium tissue culture for the development of bacterial blight resistance. Ph.D. Thesis, Michigan State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  24. Dunbar KB, Stephens CT (1989) Shoot regeneration of hybrid seed geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and regal geranium (Pelargonium x domesticum) from primary callus cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 19(1):13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Džamić AM, Soković MD, Ristić MS, Grujić SM, Mileski KS, Marin PD (2014) Chemical composition, antifungal and antioxidant activity of Pelargonium graveolens essential oil. J Appl Pharm Sci 4(03):001–005Google Scholar
  26. Edwards-Jones V, Buck R, Shawcross SG, Dawson MM, Dunn K (2004) The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model. Burns 30(8):772–777PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Eisenreich W, Bacher A, Arigoni D, Rohdich F (2004) Biosynthesis of isoprenoids via the non-mevalonate pathway. Cell Mol Life Sci 61(12):1401–1426PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Elmann A, Mordechay S, Rindner M, Ravid U (2010) Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of geranium oil in microglial cells. J Funct Foods 2(1):17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Finer JJ (1995) Direct somatic embryogenesis. In: Plant cell tissue organ cult. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 91–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Friedrich H (1976) Phenylpropanoid constituents of essential oils. Lloydia 39(1):1–7PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Ghannadi A, Bagherinejad MR, Abedi D, Jalali M, Absalan B, Sadeghi N (2012) Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L’Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. Iran J Microbiol 4(4):171PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Giongo JL, Vaucher R, Borin DI, Correa MS, Dos Santos VB, Santos RC, Boligon AA, Athayde ML, Bonez PC, Rossi GG, De Campus MM (2015) Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial and antifungal activities of geranium oil loaded nanocapsules. Int J Pharm Sci 7:414–419Google Scholar
  33. Gupta P, Goel R, Pathak S, Srivastava A, Singh SP, Sangwan RS, Asif MH, Trivedi PK (2013) De novo assembly, functional annotation and comparative analysis of Withania somnifera leaf and root transcriptomes to identify putative genes involved in the withanolides biosynthesis. PLoS One 8(5):e62714PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gupta R, Banerjee S, Mallavarapu GR, Sharma S, Khanuja SP, Shasany AK, Kumar S (2002) Development of a superior somaclone of rose-scented geranium and a protocol for inducing variants. Hort Sci 37(4):632–636Google Scholar
  35. Gupta R, Mallavarapu GR, Banerjee S, Kumar S (2001) Characteristics of an isomenthone-rich somaclonal mutant isolated in a geraniol-rich rose-scented geranium accession of Pelargonium graveolens. Flavour Fragr J 16(5):319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Haensch KT (2004) Morpho-histological study of somatic embryo-like structures in hypocotyl cultures of Pelargonium× hortorum bailey. Plant Cell Rep 22(6):376–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hakkaart FA, Hartel G (1979) Virus eradication from some Pelargonium zonale cultivars by meristem-tip culture. Eur J Plant Pathol 85(2):39–46Google Scholar
  38. Hamdorf G (1976) Propagation of Pelargonium varieties by stem-tip culture. Acta Hortic 59:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harney PM (1982) Tissue culture propagation of some herbaceous horticultural plants. In: Application of plant cell and tissue culture to agriculture and industry. University of Guelph, Ontario, pp 187–208Google Scholar
  40. Hassanein A, Chevreau E, Dorion N (2005) Highly efficient transformation of zonal (Pelargonium x hortorum) and scented (P. capitatum) geraniums via Agrobacterium tumefaciens using leaf discs. Plant Sci 169(3):532–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hayakawa H, Sobue F, Motoyama K, Yoshimura T, Hemmi H (2017) Identification of enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway of Flavobacterium johnsoniae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 487(3):702–708PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Helfer M, Koppensteiner H, Schneider M, Rebensburg S, Forcisi S, Müller C, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Schindler M, Brack-Werner R (2014) The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor. PLoS One 9(1):e87487PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hutchinson MJ, KrishnaRaj S, Saxena PK (1997) Inhibitory effect of GA 3 on the development of thidiazuron-induced somatic embryogenesis in geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum Bailey) hypocotyl cultures. Plant Cell Rep 16(6):435–438PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Jadaun JS, Sangwan NS, Narnoliya LK, Singh N, Bansal S, Mishra B, Sangwan RS (2017) Over-expression of DXS gene enhances terpenoidal secondary metabolite accumulation in rose-scented geranium and Withania somnifera: active involvement of plastid isoprenogenic pathway in their biosynthesis. Physiol Plant 159(4):381–400PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Khosravi AR, Shokri H, Sharifrohani M, Mousavi HE, Moosavi Z (2012) Evaluation of the antifungal activity of Zataria multiflora, Geranium herbarium, and Eucalyptus camaldolensis essential oils on Saprolegnia parasitica infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. Foodborne Pathog Dis 9(7):674–679PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Krishna H, Alizadeh M, Singh D, Singh U, Chauhan N, Eftekhari M, Sadh RK (2016) Somaclonal variations and their applications in horticultural crops improvement. 3 Biotech 6(1):54PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Krishnan NM, Pattnaik S, Jain P, Gaur P, Choudhary R, Vaidyanathan S, Deepak S, Hariharan AK, Krishna PB, Nair J, Varghese L (2012) A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica. BMC Genomics 13(1):464PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. KrishnaRaj S, Bi YM, Saxena PK (1997) Somatic embryogenesis and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for scented geraniums (Pelargonium sp. ‘Frensham’). Planta 201(4):434–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kulkarni RN, Mallavarapu GR, Baskaran K, Ramesh S, Kumar S (1998) Composition of the essential oils of two isomenthone-rich variants of geranium (Pelargonium sp.). Flavour Fragr J 13(6):389–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kulkarni SS, Ravindra NS, Srinivas KV, Kulkarni RN (2012) A somaclonal variant of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.) with moderately high content of isomenthone in its essential oil. Nat Prod Commun 7(9):1223–1224PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Kulkarni SS, Ravindra NS, Srinivas KV, Kulkarni RN (2014) In vitro chemical mutagenesis in exclusively vegetatively-propagated rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp.). J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 89(2):173–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lichtenthaler HK (1999) The 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 50(1):47–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lis BM (1996) A Chemotaxonomic reappraisal of the Section Ciconium Pelargonium (Geraniaceae). S Afr J Bot 62:277–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lis-Balchin M, Buchbauer G, Hirtenlehner T, Resch M (1998) Antimicrobial activity of Pelargonium essential oils added to a quiche-filling as a model food system. Lett Appl Microbiol 27(4):207–210PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Loews FA (1999) Biosynthesis and metabolism of ascorbic acid in plants and of analogs of ascorbic acid in fungi. Phytochemistry 52:193–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Marsolais AA, Wilson DP, Tsujita MJ, Senaratna T (1991) Somatic embryogenesis and artificial seed production in Zonal (Pelargonium× hortorum) and Regal (Pelargonium× domesticum) geranium. Can J Bot 69(6):1188–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Michaelis M, Doerr HW, Cinatl J (2011) Investigation of the influence of EPs® 7630, a herbal drug preparation from Pelargonium sidoides, on replication of a broad panel of respiratory viruses. Phytomedicine 18(5):384–386PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Mithila J, Murch SJ, KrishnaRaj S, Saxena PK (2001) Recent advances in Pelargonium in vitro regeneration systems. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 67(1):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mohapatra PP, Batra VK (2017) Tissue culture of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): a review. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6(4):489–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moyo M, Aremu AO, Gruz J, Šubrtová M, Szüčová L, Doležal K, Van Staden J (2013) Conservation strategy for Pelargonium sidoides DC: phenolic profile and pharmacological activity of acclimatized plants derived from tissue culture. J Ethnopharmacol 149(2):557–561PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Moyo M, Van Staden J (2014) Medicinal properties and conservation of Pelargonium sidoides DC. J Ethnopharmacol 152(2):243–255PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Murthy BNS, Vettakkorumakankav N, KrishnaRaj S, Odumeru J, Saxena PK (1999) Characterization of somatic embryogenesis in Pelargonium x hortorum mediated by a bacterium. Plant Cell Rep 18:607–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nadjib Boukhatem M, Kameli A, Amine Ferhat M, Saidi F, Mekarnia M (2013) Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs. Libyan J Med 8(1):22520PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Naeini AR, Nazeri M, Shokri H (2011) Antifungal activity of Zataria multiflora, Pelargonium graveolens and Cuminum cyminum essential oils towards three species of Malassezia isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor. J Mycol Med 21(2):87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nameth ST, Daughtrey ML, Moorman GW, Sulzinski MA (1999) Bacterial blight of geranium: a history of diagnostic challenges. Plant Dis 83(3):204–212PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Narnoliya LK, Kaushal G, Singh SP, Sangwan RS (2017) De novo transcriptome analysis of rose-scented geranium provides insights into the metabolic specificity of terpene and tartaric acid biosynthesis. BMC Genomics 18(1):74PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Narnoliya LK, Rajakani R, Sangwan NS, Gupta V, Sangwan RS (2014) Comparative transcripts profiling of fruit mesocarp and endocarp relevant to secondary metabolism by suppression subtractive hybridization in Azadirachta indica (neem). Mol Biol Rep 41(5):3147–3162PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Narnoliya LK, Sangwan RS, Singh SP (2018a) Transcriptome mining and in silico structural and functional analysis of ascorbic acid and tartaric acid biosynthesis pathway enzymes in rose-scanted geranium. Mol Biol Rep 45(3):315–326PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Narnoliya LK, Jadaun JS, Singh SP (2018b) Synthetic biology advances for enrichment of bioactive molecules inplants. In: Recent trends and techniques in plant metabolic engineering. Springer Nature, Singapore, pp 117–145. isbn:978-981-13-2251-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pellegrineschi A, Damon JP, Valtorta N, Paillard N, Tapfer D (1994) Improvement of ornamental characters and fragrance production in lemon-scented geranium through genetic transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Nature Biotechnol 12(1):64–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Putievsky E, Ravid U, Dudai N (1990) The effect of water stress on yield components and essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L. J Essent Oil Res 2(3):111–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Qureshi JA, Saxena PK (1992) Adventitious shoot induction and somatic embryogenesis with intact seedlings of several hybrid seed geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) varieties. Plant Cell Rep 11(9):443–448PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Rajeswara Rao BR, Bhattacharya AK (1997) Yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) grown in the presence and absence of weeds. Flavour Fragr J 12(3):201–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rajeswara Rao BR, Bhattacharya AK, Kaul PN, Chand S, Ramesh SI (1993) Changes in profiles of essential oils of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) during leaf ontogeny. J Essent Oil Res 5(3):301–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rajeswara Rao BR, Sastry KP, Prakasa Rao EV, Ramesh SI (1990) Variation in yields and quality of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. ex Aiton) under varied climatic and fertility conditions. J Essent Oil Res 2(2):73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Range CM, Rudolph EW, Ajay PS, Michael ER, Jonathan MF, James C, Charles RK (2011) Rare exitary amino acid from flower of zonal geranium responsible for paralyzing the Japanese beetle. PNAS 108(4):1217–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rao BR (2009) Chemical composition and uses of Indian rose-scented Geranium (Pelargonium species) essential oil-A review. J Essent Oil Bear Plant 12(4):381–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rastogi S, Meena S, Bhattacharya A, Ghosh S, Shukla RK, Sangwan NS, Lal RK, Gupta MM, Lavania UC, Gupta V, Nagegowda DA (2014) De novo sequencing and comparative analysis of holy and sweet basil transcriptomes. BMC Genomics 15(1):588PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ravindra NS, Kulkarni RN (2015) Essential oil yield and quality in rose-scented geranium: variation among clones and plant parts. Sci Hort 184:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Reuther G (1982) Propagation of disease-free Pelargonium cultivars by tissue culture. Acta Hortic 131:311–320Google Scholar
  81. Robichon MP, Renou JP, Jalouzot R (1995) Genetic transformation of Pelargonium X hortorum. Plant Cell Rep 15(1):63–67PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Rath CC, Dash SK, Rao BR (2005) Antifungal activity of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium species) essential oil and its six constituents. J Essent Oil Bear Plants 8(2):218–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Ravindra NS, Kulkarni RN, Gayathri MC, Ramesh S (2004) Somaclonal variation for some morphological traits, herbyield, essential oil content and essential oil composition in an Indian cultivar of rose-scented geranium. Plant Breed 123(1):84–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sangwan NS, Farooqi AH, Shabih F, Sangwan RS (2001) Regulation of essential oil production in plants. Plant Growth Regul 34(1):3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sangwan RS, Tripathi S, Singh J, Narnoliya LK, Sangwan NS (2013) De novo sequencing and assembly of Centella asiatica leaf transcriptome for mapping of structural, functional and regulatory genes with special reference to secondary metabolism. Gene 525(1):58–76PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Saxena G, Banerjee S, Verma PC, Mallavarapu GR, Kumar S (2007) Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) generated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated Ri-insertion for improved essential oil quality. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 90(2):215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Saxena G, Verma PC, Banerjee S, Kumar S (2008a) Field performance of somaclones of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Her Ex Ait.) for evaluation of their essential oil yield and composition. Ind Crop Prod 27(1):86–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Saxena G, Verma PC, Rahman LU, Banerjee S, Shukla RS, Kumar S (2008b) Selection of leaf blight-resistant Pelargonium graveolens plants regenerated from callus resistant to a culture filtrate of Alternaria alternata. Crop Prot 27(3):558–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sharopov FS, Zhang H, Setzer WN (2014) Composition of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) essential oil from Tajikistan. Am J Essent Oil Nat Prod 2:13–16Google Scholar
  90. Silva NCC, Fernandes AJ (2010) Biological properties of medicinal plants: a review of their antimicrobial activity. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 16:402–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Singh M, Singh UB, Ram M, Yadav A, Chanotiya CS (2013) Biomass yield, essential oil yield and quality of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. Her.) as influenced by intercropping with garlic (Allium sativum L.) under subtropical and temperate climate of India. Ind Crop Prod 46:234–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith RH (2013) Plant tissue culture: techniques and experiments. Academic Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  93. Sukhumpinij P, Kakihara F, Kato M (2010) In vitro regeneration from mature leaf explants of Pelargonium rapaceum (L.) L’Hérit. Sci Hortic 126(3):385–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Swanson JK, Yao J, Tans-Kersten J, Allen C (2005) Behavior of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 during latent and active infection of geranium. Phytopathology 95(2):136–143PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Singh P, Khan S, Kumar S, ur Rahman L (2017) Establishment of an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system in Pelargonium graveolens: an important aromatic plant. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult (PCTOC) 129(1):35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Slimmon T, Qureshi JA, Saxena PK (1991) Phenylacetic acid-induced somatic embryogenesis in cultured hypocotylexplants of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey). Plant Cell Rep 10(11):587–589PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Theisen LL, Muller CP (2012) EPs® 7630 (Umckaloabo®), an extract from Pelargonium sidoides roots, exerts anti-influenza virus activity in vitro and in vivo. Antivir Res 94(2):147–156PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Tuleja M, Krupa A, Góralski G, Płachno BJ (2014) Morphological and histological events in the preliminary tissue culture of haploid and diploid Pelargonium zonale var.‘Kleiner Liebling’. Mod Phytomorphol 6:39–40Google Scholar
  99. Van Zaayen A, Van Eijk C, Versluijs JM (1992) Production of high quality, healthy ornamental crops through meristem culture. Acta Bot Neerl 41(4):425–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Visser C, Qureshi JA, Gill R, Saxena PK (1992) Morphoregulatory role of thidiazuron substitution of auxin and cytokinin requirement for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in geranium hypocotyl cultures. Plant Physiol 99:1704–1707PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Visser-Tenyenhuis C, Murthy BNS, Odumeru J, Saxena PK (1994) Modulation of somatic embryogenesis in hypocotyl-derived cultures of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) cv. Ringo Rose by a bacterium. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 30P:140–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Verma RK, Chauhan A, Verma RS, Rahman LU, Bisht A (2013) Improving production potential and resources use efficiency of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) intercropped with geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L. Herit ex Ait) under different plant density. Ind Crop Prod 44:577–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Verma RK, Verma RS, Rahman LU, Yadav A, Patra DD, Kalra A (2014) Utilization of distillation waste–based vermicompost and other organic and inorganic fertilizers on improving production potential in geranium and soil health. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 45(2):141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Winkelmann T, Kaviani K, Serek M (2005) Development of a shoot regeneration protocol for genetic transformation in Pelargonium zonale and Pelargonium peltatum hybrids. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 80(1):33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wojtania A, Gabryszewska E, Marasek A (2004) Regeneration of Pelargonium× hederifolium ‘Bonete’ from petiole explants. Acta Physiol Plant 26(3):255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zhang J, Ruhlman TA, Mower JP, Jansen RK (2013) Comparative analyses of two Geraniaceae transcriptomes using next-generation sequencing. BMC Plant Biol 13(1):228PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lokesh Kumar Narnoliya
    • 1
  • Jyoti Singh Jadaun
    • 1
  • Sudhir P. Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing (CIAB)MohaliIndia

Personalised recommendations