Advertisement

Essential Oils

  • Muhammad Asif Hanif
  • Shafaq Nisar
  • Ghufrana Samin Khan
  • Zahid Mushtaq
  • Muhammad Zubair
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, essential oil (EO) sources, chemistry, extraction methods, analysis, biological activities, applications, risks, and dangers are described in detail. Essential oils (EOs) are highly concentrated materials extracted from leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, roots, fruit rinds, resins, or barks. EOs are frequently used for their therapeutic, odoriferous, and flavor properties, in an extensive selection of products like cosmetics, foods, and medicines. Extraction of EOs is one of the most effort-requiring and time-consuming processes. In this chapter, different methods like maceration, cold pressing, solvent extraction, enfleurage, hydrodistillation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and supercritical CO2 extraction, turbo distillation, and steam distillation are discussed. Furthermore, biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, etc.) and application of EOs in different fields (agriculture, industry, medicine etc.) are provided in detail.

Keywords

Essential oils Aromatherapy Cytotoxicity Steam distillation Antioxidants Terpenes 

References

  1. Ahmed S, Eapen M (1986) Vapour toxicity and repellency of some essential oils to insect pests. Indian Perfumer 30:273–278Google Scholar
  2. Aruoma OI (1998) Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in human health and disease. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75:199–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baser KHC, Franz C (2010) Essential oils used in veterinary medicine. In: Baser KHC (ed) Handbook of essential oils. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 881–894Google Scholar
  4. Bordia A (1981) Effect of garlic on blood lipids in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 34:2100–2103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brenner DM (1993) Perilla: botany, uses and genetic resources. In: Janick J, Simon JE (eds) New crops. Wiley, New York, pp 322–328Google Scholar
  6. Burt S (2004) Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. Int J Food Microbiol 94:223–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carson C, Riley T (1995) Antimicrobial activity of the major components of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia. J Appl Bacteriol 78:264–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cassel E, Vargas R, Martinez N, Lorenzo D, Dellacassa E (2009) Steam distillation modeling for essential oil extraction process. Ind Crop Prod 29:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cox S, Mann C, Markham J, Bell H, Gustafson J, Warmington J, Wyllie S (2000) The mode of antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). J Appl Microbiol 88:170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dale D, Saradamma K (1981) Insect antifeedant of some essential oils. Pesticides 15:21–22Google Scholar
  11. DeAngelis LM (2001) Brain tumors. N Engl J Med 344:114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Denyer S (1991) Biocide-induced damage to the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. In: Mechanisms of action of chemical biocides. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford/Boston, pp 171–188Google Scholar
  13. Dorman H, Deans SG (2000) Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 88:308–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Edris AE (2007) Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review. Phytother Res 21:308–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guenther E (2013) The essential oils-vol 1: history-origin in plants-production-analysis. Read Books Ltd, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Gustafson J, Liew YC, Chew S, Markham J, Bell HC, Wyllie SG, Warmington J (1998) Effects of tea tree oil on Escherichia coli. Lett Appl Microbiol 26:194–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Isman MB, Koul O, Luczynski A, Kaminski J (1990) Insecticidal and antifeedant bioactivities of neem oils and their relationship to azadirachtin content. J Agric Food Chem 38:1406–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Knobloch K, Weigand H, Weis N, Schwarm H, Vigenschow H (1986) Action of terpenoids on energy metabolism. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, GermanyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koh K, Pearce A, Marshman G, Finlay-Jones J, Hart P (2002) Tea tree oil reduces histamine-induced skin inflammation. Br J Dermatol 147:1212–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lambert R, Skandamis PN, Coote PJ, Nychas GJ (2001) A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. J Appl Microbiol 91:453–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marques CA, Leitão GG, Bizzo HR, Peixoto AL, Vieira RC (2009) Anatomy and essential oil analysis of the leaves from Hennecartia omphalandra J. Poisson (Monimiaceae). Rev Bras 19:95–105Google Scholar
  22. Maruyama N, Sekimoto Y, Ishibashi H, Inouye S, Oshima H, Yamaguchi H, Abe S (2005) Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of geranium essential oil. J Inflamm 2:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mateeva A, Karov S (1983) Studies on the insecticidal effect of some essential oils. Nauchni Trudove-Vissh Selskost Inst Vasil Kolarov 28:129–139Google Scholar
  24. Milner JA (2001) A historical perspective on garlic and cancer. J Nutr 131:1027S–1031SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Milner JA (2006) Preclinical perspectives on garlic and cancer. J Nutr 136:827S–831SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moon T, Wilkinson JM, Cavanagh HM (2006) Antiparasitic activity of two Lavandula essential oils against Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Hexamita inflata. Parasitol Res 99:722–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Novgorodov SA, Gudz TI (1996) Permeability transition pore of the inner mitochondrial membrane can operate in two open states with different selectivities. J Bioenerg Biomembr 28:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Oussalah M, Caillet S, Lacroix M (2006) Mechanism of action of Spanish oregano, Chinese cinnamon, and savory essential oils against cell membranes and walls of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. J Food Prot 69:1046–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pauli A (2001) Antimicrobial properties of essential oil constituents. Int J Aromather 11:126–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rao VPS, Pandey D (2007). A project report on Extraction of essential oil and its applications for Bachelor of Technology (Chemical Engineering) at Department of Chemical Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela-769008 Orissa, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  31. Regnault-Roger C (1997) The potential of botanical essential oils for insect pest control. Integr Pest Manag Rev 2:25–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Regnault-Roger C, Hamraoui A (1995) Fumigant toxic activity and reproductive inhibition induced by monoterpenes on Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say)(Coleoptera), a bruchid of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Stored Prod Res 31:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Reverchon E (1997) Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of essential oils and related products. J Supercrit Fluids 10:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rim I-S, Jee C-H (2006) Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal). Korean J Parasitol 44:133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sikkema J, de Bont JA, Poolman B (1994) Interactions of cyclic hydrocarbons with biological membranes. J Biol Chem 269:8022–8028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Turina ADV, Nolan M, Zygadlo J, Perillo M (2006) Natural terpenes: self-assembly and membrane partitioning. Biophys Chem 122:101–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ultee A, Bennik M, Moezelaar R (2002) The phenolic hydroxyl group of carvacrol is essential for action against the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1561–1568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yoon HS, Moon SC, Kim ND, Park BS, Jeong MH, Yoo YH (2000) Genistein induces apoptosis of RPE-J cells by opening mitochondrial PTP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 276:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zellner BDA, Dugo P, Dugo G, Mondello L (2010) Analysis of essential oils. In: Handbook of essential oils. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, London, pp 151–184Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Asif Hanif
    • 1
  • Shafaq Nisar
    • 1
  • Ghufrana Samin Khan
    • 2
  • Zahid Mushtaq
    • 3
  • Muhammad Zubair
    • 4
  1. 1.Nano and Biomaterials Lab (NBL), Department of ChemistryUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Engineering and Technology (Lahore)FaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Bioactive Molecules Research Lab (BMRL), Department of BiochemistryUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryUniversity of GujratGujratPakistan

Personalised recommendations