Essential Oils

  • Muhammad Asif Hanif
  • Shafaq Nisar
  • Ghufrana Samin Khan
  • Zahid Mushtaq
  • Muhammad Zubair


In this chapter, essential oil (EO) sources, chemistry, extraction methods, analysis, biological activities, applications, risks, and dangers are described in detail. Essential oils (EOs) are highly concentrated materials extracted from leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, roots, fruit rinds, resins, or barks. EOs are frequently used for their therapeutic, odoriferous, and flavor properties, in an extensive selection of products like cosmetics, foods, and medicines. Extraction of EOs is one of the most effort-requiring and time-consuming processes. In this chapter, different methods like maceration, cold pressing, solvent extraction, enfleurage, hydrodistillation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and supercritical CO2 extraction, turbo distillation, and steam distillation are discussed. Furthermore, biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, etc.) and application of EOs in different fields (agriculture, industry, medicine etc.) are provided in detail.


Essential oils Aromatherapy Cytotoxicity Steam distillation Antioxidants Terpenes 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Asif Hanif
    • 1
  • Shafaq Nisar
    • 1
  • Ghufrana Samin Khan
    • 2
  • Zahid Mushtaq
    • 3
  • Muhammad Zubair
    • 4
  1. 1.Nano and Biomaterials Lab (NBL), Department of ChemistryUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Engineering and Technology (Lahore)FaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Bioactive Molecules Research Lab (BMRL), Department of BiochemistryUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryUniversity of GujratGujratPakistan

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