The Influence of the Height of Foil Tunnels on the Formation of Thermal Conditions in the Plant Growing Zone

  • Grzegorz NawalanyEmail author
  • Paweł Sokołowski
Conference paper


The paper attempts to determine the influence of the height of foil tunnels on the formation of thermal conditions in the plant growing zone. A diagnosis of the temperature distribution and the direction of heat flow in the ground under tunnels was made. Continuous recording of the temperature and relative humidity of the internal and external air, the intensity of solar radiation and the direction and speed of the wind was also carried out. There are periods and places where there are losses and heat gains from the ground. Studies on the formation of thermal conditions in the ground and selected parameters of the internal and external microclimate were carried out in two free-standing tunnels of different construction, in an agricultural holding located in the Świętokrzyskie Province. In the tunnels, seasonal cultivation of cucumbers was carried out from April to October. In the hot bottom, the internal temperature in the higher tunnel was 6.8 °C lower than in the lower tunnel. On the other hand, on cloudy days, the temperature in both tunnels was similar, and its differences were within the scope of measurement error of the sensors. The studies did not show the influence of height on the temperature distribution in the root zone of plants. Differences in the top soil layer (−0.1 m) reached 0.8 °C. At lower levels (−0.5 m and −1.0 m), ground temperature differences under the tunnels were around 0.2 °C. The results of the detailed analysis indicate that, when taking the varied surface of the tunnels into account, the energy gains from the soil in the low tunnel reached 44.3 kWh/m2, whereas in the high one their value was higher and reached 46.4 kWh/m2.


Plastic tunnel Temperature Soil 



The research was financed by statutory activity subsidy from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Poland.


  1. 1.
    Al-Kayssi, A.W.: Spatial variability of soil temperature under greenhouse conditions. Renew. Energy 27, 453–462 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Du, J., Bansal, P., Huang, B.: Simulation model of a greenhouse with a heat-pipe heating system. Appl. Energy 93, 268–276 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Durau-Banaszewska, B.: Analysis of the atmospheric precipitation deficiencies in the selected ground vegetables cultivation in the region of Bydgoszcz. Infrastruktura i Ekologia Terenów Wiejskich, Nr 2017/II(1) (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Górak, M.: Infrastructural investments as a factor which determines the location of storage facilities. Infrastruktura i Ekologia Terenów Wiejskich, Nr 2017/IV(1) (2017)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    GUS 2015: Plant production yields in 2015. Information and statistical studies, Warszawa (2016)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hinkelman, L.M., Stackhouse, P.W., Wielicki, B.A., Zhang, T., Wilson, S.R.: Surface insolation trends from satellite and ground measurements: comparisons and challenges. J. Geophys. Res. 114(D10), 1–18 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kurkulu, A., Bilgin, S., Ozkan, B.: A study on the solar energy storing rock-bed to heat a polyethylene tunnel type greenhouse. Renew. Energy 28, 683–697 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kurpaska, S., Latała, H.: Energy analysis of heat surplus storage systems in plastic tunnels. Renew. Energy 35, 2656–2665 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nawalany, G., Bieda, W., Radoń, J., Herbut, P.: Experimental study on development of thermal conditions in ground beneath a greenhouse. Energy Build. 69, 103–111 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nawalany, G., Radoń, J., Bieda, W., Sokołowski, P.: Influence of selected factors on heat exchange with ground in a greenhouse. Trans. ASABE 60(2), 479–487 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A., Enriquez-Alonso, A., Wild, M., Trentmann, J., Vicente-Serrano, S., Sanchez-Romero, A., Posselt, R., Hakuba, M.: Trends in downward surface solar radiation from satellites and ground observations over Europe during 1983–2010. Remote Sens. Environ. 189, 108–117 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Taki, M., Rohani, A., Rahmati-Joneidabad, M.: Solar thermal simulation and applications in greenhouse. Inf. Process. Agric. 5, 83–113 (2018)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Treder, W., Klamkowski, K.: An hourly reference evapotranspiration model as a tool for estimating plant water requirements. Infrastruktura i Ekologia Terenów Wiejskich, Nr 2017/II(1) (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Włodek, S., Sikora, J., Pawęska, K., Biskupski, A., Owsiak, Z., Maga, J.: Air temperature variability on the silesian lowlands in the years 1957–2014. Infrastruktura i Ekologia Terenów Wiejskich, Nr 2017/IV (3) (2017)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Department of Rural BuildingUniversity of Agriculture in KrakowKrakówPoland

Personalised recommendations