International Education in the Twenty-First Century: Lessons Learned from 9/11 and Cautious Hope for the Future

  • A. Celeste GaiaEmail author
  • Marcelo da Silva Leite


In this chapter, we begin by describing the importance of international education and the nationwide movement to internationalize colleges and universities in the United States. Next, we highlight how 9/11 has played a role in internationalization, with a specific focus on changes in the monitoring of international students, student mobility, and public attitudes toward immigrants in the U.S. Finally, we discuss the U.S. government and education response to 9/11, the future of international education, and why the continued promotion of global awareness and cultural competency is critical to higher education. Events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 have far reaching implications for international educators and the strategies they use to educate global citizens in the twenty-first century.


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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyEmory & Henry CollegeEmoryUSA
  2. 2.Methodist University of Piracicaba (UNIMEP)São PauloBrazil

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