Advertisement

Context and Match Between Context and Framework Components

  • Susannah B. F. Paletz
  • Brooke E. Auxier
  • Ewa M. Golonka
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Complexity book series (BRIEFSCOMPLEXITY)

Abstract

This chapter tackled three major aspects of the social context: culture, narratives, and language; social comparison of beliefs and norms; and the structure and composition of one’s social network. These factors may have an impact not only on sharing behavior directly, but also on motivations and reactions to narratives and information. Culture, whether conceptualized as cross-national dimensions or culture-specific narratives, may impact how a particular piece of information is viewed, for instance. Comparisons between one’s own beliefs and that perceived to be held by one’s social group may influence how socially acceptable it is to state a particular belief. Echo chambers of people with the same belief may become more extreme. Indeed, these contextual factors also interact with each other, such that culture can be associated with structural differences in social networks. Although the reviewed studies have complex results with regards to social network ties, connections matter and are imperative to the spreading of information. This research also suggests that community structures, the composition of the community (homogeneous or diverse), perceptions of the specific audience, and network size are important factors in the spread, propagation and virality of information online.

Keywords

Social media Social media users Norms Culture Narratives Language Beliefs Social network Sociology Propagation Social media sharing Echo chambers Social network ties 

References

  1. Acar, A., & Deguchi, A. (2013). Culture and social media usage: Analysis of Japanese Twitter users. International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies, 4, 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amoozgar, M., & Ramezanian, R. (2013). A computational model and convergence theorem for rumor dissemination in social networks. The ISC International Journal of Information Security, 5, 141–154. Retrieved from arXiv:1211.6244v4 [cs.SI] 21 October 2014.Google Scholar
  3. Bakshy, E., Rosenn, I., Marlow, C., & Adamic, L. (2012). The role of social networks in information diffusion. In WWW ’12: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on World Wide Web. New York: ACM.  https://doi.org/10.1145/2187836.2187907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barasch, A., & Berger, J. (2014). Broadcasting and narrowcasting: How audience size affects what people share. Journal of Marketing Research, 51, 286–299.  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmr.13.0238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett, T. (2015). Cultural studies and the culture concept. Cultural Studies, 29, 546–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boucher, H. C. (2011). The dialectical self concept II: Cross-role and within-role consistency, well-being, self-certainty, and authenticity. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 1251–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boutz, J., Benninger, H., & Lancaster, A. (2018). Exploiting the Prophet’s authority: How Islamic State propaganda uses hadith quotation to assert legitimacy. Conflict and Terrorism Studies, 1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2018.1431363
  8. Chew, P., & Turnley, J. G. (2017, October). Rethinking sentiment analysis and ‘master narratives’: An alternative unsupervised text analytics approach using ‘information space differences’. Paper presented at the 2017 Annual Conference of the Computational Social Science Society of the Americas, Santa Fe, NM. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9096/da1540534e56947be1ef7216e333c534b896.pdf
  9. Choi, I., & Nisbett, R. (2000). Cultural psychology of surprise: Holistic theories and recognition of contradiction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 890–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Choi, K. S., Im, I., & Hofstede, G. J. (2016). A cross-cultural comparative analysis of small group collaboration using mobile Twitter. Computers in Human Behavior, 65, 308–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chu, S., & Kim, Y. (2011). Determinants of consumer engagement in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in social networking sites. International Journal of Advertising, 30, 47–75.  https://doi.org/10.2501/IJA-30-1-047-075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cialdini, R. B., Demaine, L. J., Sagarin, B. J., Barrett, D. W., Rhoads, K., & Winter, P. L. (2006). Managing social norms for persuasive impact. Social Influence, 1, 3–15.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15534510500181459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J. (2004). Social influence: Compliance and conformity. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 591–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cialdini, R. B., Kallgren, C. A., & Reno, R. R. (1991). A focus theory of normative conduct: A theoretical refinement and reevaluation of the role of norms in human behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 201–234.Google Scholar
  15. Darke, P. R., Chaiken, S., Bohner, G., Einwiller, S., Erb, H.-P., & Hazlewood, J. D. (1998). Accuracy motivation, consensus information, and the law of large numbers: Effects on attitude judgment in the absence of argumentation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1205–1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dubois, D., Bonezzi, A., & De Angelis, M. (2016). Sharing with friends versus strangers: How interpersonal closeness influences word-of-mouth valence. Journal of Marketing Research, 53, 712–727.  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmr.13.0312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flaxman, S., Goel, S., & Rao, J. M. (2016). Filter bubbles, echo chambers, and online news consumption. Public Opinion Quarterly, 80, 298–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  19. Gelfand, M. J. (2012). Culture’s constraints: International differences in the strength of social norms. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 420–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gelfand, M. J., Nishii, L. H., & Raver, J. L. (2006). On the nature and importance of cultural tightness-looseness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1225–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gelfand, M. J., Raver, J. L., Nishii, L., Leslie, L. M., Lun, J., Lim, B. C., et al. (2011). Differences between tight and loose cultures: A 33-nation study. Science, 332, 1100–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gelfand, M. J., Severance, L., Lee, T., Bruss, C. B., Lun, J., Abdel-Latif, A.-H., et al. (2015). Culture and getting to yes: The linguistic signature of creative agreements in the United States and Egypt. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 967–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Halverson, J. R., Goodall, H. L., & Corman, S. R. (2011). Master narratives of Islamist extremism. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Halvey, M. J., & Keane, M. T. (2007). Exploring social dynamics in online media sharing. In WWW ’07: Proceedings of the 16th international conference on World Wide Web (pp. 1273–1274). New York: ACM. ISBN: 978-1-59593-654-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harrington, J. R., & Gelfand, M. J. (2014). Tightness-looseness across the 50 United States. PNAS, 111, 7990–7995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Heine, S. J., Lehman, D. R., Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1999). Is there a universal need for self-regard? Psychological Review, 106, 766–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ho, D. Y. (1976). On the concept of face. American Journal of Sociology, 81, 867–884.  https://doi.org/10.1086/226145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. Isenberg, D. J. (1986). Group polarization: A critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1141–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim, Y.-H., Cohen, D., & Au, W.-T. (2010). The jury and abjury of my peers: The self in face and dignity cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 904–916.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leung, A. K.-Y., & Cohen, D. (2011). Within- and between-culture variation: Individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 507–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Levinger, M. (2018). Master narratives of disinformation campaigns. Journal of International Affairs, 71, 125–134.Google Scholar
  34. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Morling, B., & Lamoreaux, M. (2008). Measuring culture outside the head: A meta-analysis of individualism collectivism in cultural products. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12, 199–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Myers, D. G., & Lamm, H. (1976). The group polarization phenomenon. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 602–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Na, J., Koskinski, M., & Stillwell, D. J. (2015). When a new tool is introduced in different cultural contexts: Individualism-collectivism and social network on Facebook. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46, 355–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nolan, J. M., Schultz, P. W., Cialdini, R. B., Goldstein, N. J., & Griskevicius, V. (2008). Normative social influence is underdetected. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 913–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oeldorf-Hirsch, A., & Sundar, S. S. (2015). Posting, commenting, and tagging: Effects of sharing news stories on Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 240–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Paluck, E. L., & Shepherd, H. (2012). The salience of social referents: A field experiment on collective norms and harassment behavior in a school social network. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 899–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Papacharissi, Z. (2017). Affective publics: Sentiment, technology and politics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Peng, K., & Nisbett, R. E. (1999). Culture, dialectics, and reasoning about contradiction. American Psychologist, 54, 741–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pfeffer, J., & Carley, K. M. (2013). The importance of local clusters for the diffusion of opinions and beliefs in interpersonal communication networks. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 10, 13400022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pfeffer, J., Zorbach, T., & Carley, K. (2014). Understanding online firestorms: Negative word-of-mouth dynamics in social media networks. Journal of Marketing Communications, 20, 117–128.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13527266.2013.797778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rohner, R. P. (1984). Toward a conception of culture for cross-cultural psychology. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 15, 111–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schimmack, U., Oishi, S., & Diener, E. (2002). Cultural influences on the relation between pleasant emotions and unpleasant emotions: Asian dialectic philosophies or individualism-collectivism? Cognition and Emotion, 16, 705–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Scott, M. (2017, May 4). In French elections, alt-right messages and memes don’t translate. New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/04/technology/french-elections-alt-right-fake-news-le-pen-macron.html?_r=1
  48. Semaan, B., Robertson, S. P., Douglas, S., & Maruyama, M. (2014). Social media supporting political deliberation across multiple public spheres: Towards depolarization. In CSCW’14, Baltimore, MD.  https://doi.org/10.1145/2531602.2531605
  49. Shifman, L. (2016). Cross-cultural comparisons of user-generated content: An analytical framework. International Journal of Communication, 10, 5644–5663.Google Scholar
  50. Sia, C.-L., Tan, B. C. Y., & Wei, K.-K. (2002). Group polarization and computer-mediated communication: Effects of communication cues, social presence, and anonymity. Information Systems Research, 13, 70–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Spencer-Rodgers, J., Boucher, H., Mori, S. C., Wang, L., & Peng, K. (2009). The dialectical self-concept: Contradiction, change, and holism in East Asian cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 29–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Spencer-Rodgers, J., Peng, K., & Wang, L. (2010). Dialecticism and the co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41, 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spencer-Rodgers, J., Williams, M. J., & Peng, K. (2010). Cultural differences in expectations of change and tolerance for contradiction: A decade of empirical research. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14, 296–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stutzman, F. (2006). An evaluation of identity-sharing behavior in social network communities. Journal of the International Digital Media and Arts Association, 3, 10–18.Google Scholar
  55. Triandis, H. C. (1989). The self and social behavior in differing cultural contexts. Psychological Review, 96, 506–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  57. Tylor, E. B. (1871). Primitive culture: Researches into the development of mythology, philosophy, religion, language, art and custom. London: J. Murray.Google Scholar
  58. Voelkel, J. G., & Feinberg, M. (2017). Morally reframed arguments can affect support for political candidates. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 9, 917–924.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550617729408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vosoughi, S., Roy, D., & Aral, S. (2018). The spread of true and false news online. Science, 359, 1146–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Weaver, K., Garcia, S. M., Schwarz, N., & Miller, D. T. (2007). Inferring the popularity of an opinion from its familiarity: A repetitive voice can sound like a chorus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 821–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Weng, L., Menczer, F., & Ahn, Y. (2013). Virality prediction and community structure in social networks. Scientific Reports, 3, 2522.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep02522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wierzbicka, A. (1997). Understanding cultures through their key words: English, Russian, Polish, German and Japanese. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Wierzbicka, A. (2003). Cross-cultural pragmatics: The semantics of human interaction. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wood, W. (2000). Attitude change: Persuasion and social influence. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 539–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhao, J., Wu, J., Feng, X., Xiong, H., & Xu, K. (2012). Informational propagation in online social networks: A tie-strength perspective. Knowledge and Information Systems, 32, 589–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susannah B. F. Paletz
    • 1
  • Brooke E. Auxier
    • 2
  • Ewa M. Golonka
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Advanced Study of LanguageUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.Philip Merrill College of JournalismUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations