Advertisement

Territoriality in Aquatic Insects

  • Gregory F. GretherEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Research on territoriality has barely progressed beyond the descriptive stage in most aquatic insects, but some territorial species have been studied intensively and served as model organisms for testing certain aspects of evolutionary theory. After providing a brief introduction to territoriality in general, I review the taxonomic distribution and types of territoriality reported in aquatic insects, before delving into more theoretical topics. Larval feeding territories have been described in aquatic insects of several orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Trichoptera), while adult feeding and mating territories have only been reported in Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies) and Hemiptera (water striders and ripple bugs). With mostly Odonata examples, I review the following subjects more critically: (1) determinants of territorial status and the outcome of territorial contests, (2) territorial signals and cues, (3) persistence of interspecific territoriality, and (4) agonistic character displacement. Important advances have been made in each of these areas using aquatic insects, but persistent methodological issues have also impeded progress. I offer some general advice for studying territoriality and conclude by identifying areas where more research is needed.

Keywords

Territorial behavior Contests Character displacement Agonistic interactions 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I thank Rhainer Guillermo-Ferreira and Kleber Del-Claro for inviting me to write this chapter and an anonymous reviewer for helpful comments on a previous draft. My research on Hetaerina damselflies has been funded by multiple grants from the National Science Foundation and the University of California.

References

  1. Adams ES (2001) Approaches to the study of territory size and shape. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 32:277–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcock J (1982) Post-copulatory mate guarding by males of the damselfly Hetaerina vulnerata-Selys (Odonata, Calopterygidae). Anim Behav 30:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Álvarez HA, Serrano-Meneses MA, Reyes-Márquez I et al (2013) Allometry of a sexual trait in relation to diet experience and alternative mating tactics in two rubyspot damselflies (Calopterygidae: Hetaerina). Biol J Linn Soc 108:521–533.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2012.02031.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Álvarez HA, García-Chávez JH, Cebada-Ruiz JA (2017) Do social environments affect the use of exaggerated traits in the dobsonfly Corydalus bidenticulatus? Entomol Sci 20:168–176.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ens.12249 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Álvarez-Covelli C, Álvarez-Covelli MA, Palacino-Rodríguez F (2015) Abdomen or wings? Comparing two body places for marking in Mesamphiagrion laterale (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 44:343–348Google Scholar
  6. Anderson CN, Grether GF (2010a) Interspecific aggression and character displacement of competitor recognition in Hetaerina damselflies. Proc R Soc B 277:549–555.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.1371 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson CN, Grether GF (2010b) Character displacement in the fighting colours of Hetaerina damselflies. Proc R Soc B 277:3669–3675.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.0935 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson CN, Cordoba-Aguilar A, Drury JP, Grether GF (2011) An assessment of marking techniques for odonates in the family Calopterygidae. Entomol Exp Appl 141:258–261.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2011.01185.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arnqvist G (1997) The evolution of water strider mating systems: causes and consequences of sexual conflicts. In: Choe JC, Crespi BJ (eds) The evolution of mating systems in insects and arachnids. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, pp 146–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baker RL (1981) Behavioural interactions and use of feeding areas by nymphs of Coenagrion resolutum (Coenagrionidae: Odonata). Oecologia 49:353–358.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00347597 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baker RR (1983) Insect Territoriality. Annu Rev Entomol 28:65–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown JL (1964) The evolution of diversity in avian territorial systems. Wilson Bull 76:160–169.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Butcher GS, Rohwer S (1989) The evolution of conspicuous and distinctive coloration for communication in birds. Curr Ornithol 6:51–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conrad KF, Pritchard G (1988) The reproductive behavior of Argia vivida Hagen: an example of a female-control mating system (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 17:179–185Google Scholar
  15. Contreras-Garduño J, Canales-Lazcano J, Córdoba-Aguilar A (2006) Wing pigmentation, immune ability, fat reserves and territorial status in males of the rubyspot damselfly, Hetaerina americana. J Ethol 24:165–173.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10164-005-0177-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Contreras-Garduño J, Lanz-Mendoza H, Córdoba-Aguilar A (2007) The expression of a sexually selected trait correlates with different immune defense components and survival in males of the American rubyspot. J Insect Physiol 53:612–621.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2007.03.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Contreras-Garduno J, Buzatto BA, Serrano-Meneses MA et al (2008) The size of the red wing spot of the American rubyspot as a heightened condition-dependent ornament. Behav Ecol 19:724–732.  https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arn026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corbet PS (1999) Dragonflies: behavior and ecology of Odonata. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
  19. Córdoba-Aguilar A, González-Tokman DM (2014) The behavioral and physiological ecology of adult rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina, Calopterygidae, Odonata). Adv Study Behav 46:311–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cordoba-Aguilar A, Lesher-Trevino AC, Anderson CN (2007) Sexual selection in Hetaerina titia males: a possible key species to understand the evolution of pigmentation in calopterygid damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera). Behaviour 144:931–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Corkum LD (1978) The influence of density and behavioural type on the active entry of two mayfly species (Ephemeroptera) into the water column. Can J Zool 56:1201–1206.  https://doi.org/10.1139/z78-164 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davies NB, Houston AI (1981) Owners and satellites: the economics of territory defence in the pied wagtail, Motacilla alba. J Anim Ecol 50:157–180.  https://doi.org/10.2307/4038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Drury JP, Grether GF (2014) Interspecific aggression, not interspecific mating, drives character displacement in the wing coloration of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina). Proc R Soc B 281:20141737.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.1737 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Drury JP, Okamoto KW, Anderson CN, Grether GF (2015) Reproductive interference explains persistence of aggression between species. Proc R Soc B 282:20142256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fincke OM (1996) Larval behaviour of a giant damselfly: territoriality or size-dependent dominance? Anim Behav 51:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fitzstephens D, Getty T (2000) Colour, fat and social status in male damselflies, Calopteryx maculata. Anim Behav 60:851–855.  https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2000.1548 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Forsyth A, Montgomerie RD (1987) Alternative reproductive tactics in the territorial damselfly Calopteryx maculata: sneaking by older males. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 21:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gill FB, Wolf LL (1975) Economics of feeding territoriality in the golden-winged sunbird. Ecology 56:333–345.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1934964 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. González-Santoyo I, Córdoba-Aguilar A, González-Tokman DM, Lanz-Mendoza H (2010) Phenoloxidase activity and melanization do not always covary with sexual trait expression in Hetaerina damselflies (Insecta: Calopterygidae). Behaviour 147:1285–1307.  https://doi.org/10.1163/000579510X516777 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. González-Santoyo I, González-Tokman DM, Munguía-Steyer RE, Córdoba-Aguilar A (2014) A mismatch between the perceived fighting signal and fighting ability reveals survival and physiological costs for bearers. PLoS One 9:e84571.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084571 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Gorb SN (1994) Female perching behaviour in Sympetrum sanguineum (Mueller) at feeding places (Anisoptera: Libellulidae). Odonatologica 23:341–353Google Scholar
  32. Grafen A (1987) The logic of divisively asymmetric contests: respect for ownership and the desperado effect. Anim Behav 35:462–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grafen A (1990) Biological signals as handicaps. J Theor Biol 144:517–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grether GF (1996a) Sexual selection and survival selection on wing coloration and body size in the rubyspot damselfly Hetaerina americana. Evolution 50:1939–1948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grether GF (1996b) Intrasexual competition alone favors a sexually dimorphic ornament in the rubyspot damselfly Hetaerina americana. Evolution 50:1949–1957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grether GF (1997) Survival cost of an intrasexually selected ornament in a damselfly. Proc R Soc B 264:207–210.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1997.0029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grether G (2011) The neuroecology of competitor recognition. Integr Comp Biol 51:807–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grether GF, Grey RM (1996) Novel cost of a sexually selected trait in the rubyspot damselfly Hetaerina americana: conspicuousness to prey. Behav Ecol 7:465–473.  https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/7.4.465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Grether GF, Losin N, Anderson CN, Okamoto K (2009) The role of interspecific interference competition in character displacement and the evolution of competitor recognition. Biol Rev 84:617–635.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2009.00089.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Grether GF, Anderson CN, Drury JP et al (2013) The evolutionary consequences of interspecific aggression. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1289:48–68.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12082 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Grether GF, Drury JP, Berlin E, Anderson CN (2015) The role of wing coloration in sex recognition and competitor recognition in rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.). Ethology 121:674–685.  https://doi.org/10.1111/eth.12382 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grether GF, Peiman KS, Tobias JA, Robinson BW (2017) Causes and consequences of behavioral interference between species. Trends Ecol Evol.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2017.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gross MR (1996) Alternative reproductive strategies and tactics: diversity within sexes. Trends Ecol Evol 11:92–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Guillermo-Ferreira R, Del-Claro K (2011) Resource defense polygyny by Hetaerina rosea Selys (Odonata: Calopterygidae): influence of age and wing pigmentation. Neotrop Entomol 40:78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guillermo-Ferreira R, Therézio EM, Gehlen MH et al (2014) The role of wing pigmentation, UV and fluorescence as signals in a neotropical damselfly. J Insect Behav 27:67–80.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10905-013-9406-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Guillermo-Ferreira R, Bispo PC, Appel E et al (2015a) Mechanism of the wing colouration in the dragonfly Zenithoptera lanei (Odonata: Libellulidae) and its role in intraspecific communication. J Insect Physiol 81:129–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.07.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Guillermo-Ferreira R, Gorb SN, Appel E et al (2015b) Variable assessment of wing colouration in aerial contests of the red-winged damselfly Mnesarete pudica (Zygoptera, Calopterygidae). Sci Nat 102.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-015-1261-z
  48. Hansen AJ, Rohwer S (1986) Coverable badges and resource defence in birds. Anim Behav 34:69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hart DD (1985) Causes and consequences of territoriality in a grazing stream insect. Ecology 66:404–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hart DD (1986) The adaptive significance of territoriality in filter-feeding larval black flies (Diptera Simuliidae). Oikos 46:88–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hart DD (1987) Feeding territoriality in aquatic insects: cost-benefit models and experimental tests. Integr Comp Biol 27:371–386.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/27.2.371 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harvey IF, Corbet PS (1986) Territorial interactions between larvae of the dragonfly Pyrrhosoma nymphula: outcome of encounters. Anim Behav 34:1550–1561.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(86)80224-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hassall C (2014) Continental variation in wing pigmentation in Calopteryx damselflies is related to the presence of heterospecifics. PeerJ 2:e438.  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.438 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Hinde A (1956) The biological significance of the territories of birds. Ibis (Lond 1859) 98:340–369.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.1956.tb01419.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Honkavaara J, Dunn DW, Ilvonen S, Suhonen J (2011) Sympatric shift in a male sexual ornament in the damselfly Calopteryx splendens. J Evol Biol 24:139–145.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2010.02146.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hooper RE, Tsubaki Y, Siva-Jothy MT (1999) Expression of a costly, plastic secondary sexual trait is correlated with age and condition in a damselfly with two male morphs. Physiol Entomol 24:364–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Iyengar VK, Castle T, Mullen SP (2014) Sympatric sexual signal divergence among North American Calopteryx damselflies is correlated with increased intra- and interspecific male–male aggression. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 68:275–282.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-013-1642-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jablonski PG, Wilcox RS (1996) Signalling asymmetry in the communication of the water strider Aquarius remigis in the context of dominance and spacing in the non-mating season. Ethology 102:353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson C (1962) A description of territorial behavior and a quantitative study of its function in males of Hetaerina americana (Fabricius) (Odonata: Agriidae). Can Entomol 94:178–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Johnson DM (1991) Behavioral ecology of larval dragonflies and damselflies. Trends Ecol Evol 6:8–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(91)90140-S CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Johnstone RA, Norris K (1993) Badges of status and the cost of aggression. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 32:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kaitala A, Dingle H (1993) Wing dimorphism, territoriality and mating frequency of the water strider Aquarius remigis (Say). Ann Zool Fenn 30:163–168Google Scholar
  63. Kaufmann JH (1983) On the definitions and functions of dominance and territoriality. Biol Rev 58:1–20.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.1983.tb00379.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kemp DJ (2018) Habitat selection and territoriality. In: Córdoba-Aguilar A, González-Tokman D, Isaac González S (eds) Insect behavior: from mechanisms to ecological and evolutionary consequences. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 80–97Google Scholar
  65. Kemp DJ, Wiklund C, Gotthard K (2006) Life history effects upon contest behaviour: age as a predictor of territorial contest dynamics in two populations of the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria L. Ethology 112:471–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Koenig WD (1990) Territory size and duration in the white-tailed skimmer Plathemis lydia (Odonata: Libellulidae). J Anim Ecol 59:317–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kohler SL (1992) Competition and the structure of a benthic stream community. Ecol Monogr 62:165–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kokko H, Lopez-Sepulcre A, Morrell LJ (2006) From hawks and doves to self-consistent games of territorial behavior. Am Nat 167:901–912.  https://doi.org/10.1086/504604 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Krogh A (1929) The progress of physiology. Am J Phys 90:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kuitunen K, Kotiaho JS, Luojumaki M, Suhonen J (2011) Selection on size and secondary sexual characters of the damselfly Calopteryx splendens when sympatric with the congener Calopteryx virgo. Can J Zool 89:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1139/z10-090 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Laidre ME, Johnstone RA (2013) Animal signals. Curr Biol 23:R829–R833.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.07.070 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lieske R, Zwick P (2008) Effects of intraspecific competition on the life cycle of the stonefly, Nemurella pictetii (Plecoptera: Nemouridae). BMC Ecol 8:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6785-8-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Marden JH, Rollins RA (1994) Assessment of energy reserves by damselflies engaged in aerial contests for mating territories. Anim Behav 48:1023–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Marden JH, Waage JK (1990) Escalated damselfly territorial contests are energetic wars of attrition. Anim Behav 39:954–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Matczak TZ, Mackay RJ (1990) Territoriality in filter-feeding caddisfly larvae: laboratory experiments. J N Am Benthol Soc 9:26–34.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1467931 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Maynard Smith J, Harper DGC (1988) The evolution of aggression: can selection generate variability? Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 319:557–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Maynard Smith J, Harper GGC (1995) Animal signals: models and terminology. J Theor Biol 177:305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mesterton-Gibbons M, Sherratt TN (2014) Bourgeois versus anti-Bourgeois: a model of infinite regress. Anim Behav 89:171–183.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mesterton-Gibbons M, Marden J, Dugatkin LA (1996) On wars of attrition without assessment. J Theor Biol 181:65–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mullen SP, Andres JA (2007) Rapid evolution of sexual signals in sympatric Calopteryx damselflies: reinforcement or “noisy-neighbour” ecological character displacement? J Evol Biol 20:1637–1648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Murray BG (1981) The origins of adaptive interspecific territorialism. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 56:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nummelin M (1988) The territorial behavior of four Ugandan water strider species (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Ann Entomol Fenn 54:121–134Google Scholar
  83. Okamoto KW, Grether GF (2013) The evolution of species recognition in competitive and mating contexts: the relative efficacy of alternative mechanisms of character displacement. Ecol Lett 16:670–678.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12100 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Olosutean H (2018) Does population density determine the mating strategy in males of the water strider Aquarius paludum? Entomol News 127:349–360.  https://doi.org/10.3157/021.127.0407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Payne RJH (1998) Gradually escalating fights and displays: the cumulative assessment model. Anim Behav 56:651–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pestana GC, Caromano TG, Guillermo-Ferreira R (2018) Sexual ornamentation triggers rival aggressiveness in the Neotropical damselfly Hetaerina longipes (Odonata: Calopterygidae). Odonatologica 47:121–132.  https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1239951 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Plaistow S, Siva-Jothy MT (1996) Energetic constraints and male mate-securing tactics in the damselfly Calopteryx splendens xanthostoma (Charpentier). Proc Biol Sci 263:1233–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Plaistow SJ, Tsubaki Y (2000) A selective trade-off for territoriality and non-territoriality in the polymorphic damselfly Mnais costalis. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 267:969–975.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2000.1098 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Raihani G, Serrano-Meneses MA, Córdoba-Aguilar A (2008) Male mating tactics in the American rubyspot damselfly: territoriality, nonterritoriality and switching behaviour. Anim Behav 75:1851–1860.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rohwer S, Røskaft E (1989) Results of dyeing male yellow-headed blackbirds solid black: implications for the arbitrary identity badge hypothesis. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 25:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rowe RJ (1980) Territorial behaviour of a larval dragonfly Xanthocnemis zealandica (McLachlan) (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 9:285–292Google Scholar
  92. Rowe RJ (2006) Patterns and processes in freshwater systems: the social dimension. N Z Nat Sci 31:59–70Google Scholar
  93. Schultz JK, Switzer PV (2001) Pursuit of heterospecific targets by territorial amberwing dragonflies (Perithemis tenera say): a case of mistaken identity. J Insect Behav 14:607–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sherratt TN, Mesterton-Gibbons M (2015) The evolution of respect for property. J Evol Biol 28:1185–1202.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jeb.12648 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Singer F (1989) Interspecific aggression in Leucorrhinia dragonflies - a frequency-dependent discrimination threshold hypothesis. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 25:421–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Singer F (1990) Reproductive costs arising from incomplete habitat segregation among three species of Leucorrhinia dragonflies. Behaviour 115:188–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sjöström P (1985) Territoriality in nymphs of Dinocras cephalotes (Plecoptera). Oikos 45:353–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Stamps JA (1994) Territorial behavior: testing the assumptions. Adv Study Behav 23:173–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Suhonen J, Rantala MJ, Honkavaara J (2008) Territoriality in odonates. In: Córdoba-Aguilar A (ed) Dragonflies and damselflies: model organisms for ecological and evolutionary research. Oxford Univ Press, Oxford, pp 203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Suhonen J, Ilvonen S, Dunn DW et al (2018) Parasitism affects variation in a male damselfly sexual ornament. Ethol Ecol Evol 30:256–266.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03949370.2017.1354920 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Taborsky M, Brockmann H (2010) Alternative reproductive tactics and life history phenotypes. In: Kappeler P (ed) Animal behaviour: evolution and mechanisms. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 537–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tanaka Y, Iguchi K, Yoshimura J et al (2011) Historical effect in the territoriality of ayu fish. J Theor Biol 268:98–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2010.09.040 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Tinghitella RM, Lackey ACR, Martin M et al (2018) On the role of male competition in speciation: a review and research agenda. Behav Ecol:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arx151 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tsubaki Y (2003) The genetic polymorphism linked to mate-securing strategies in the male damselfly Mnais costalis Selys Odonata: Calopterygidae. Popul Ecol 45:263–266.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10144-003-0162-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tsubaki Y, Okuyama H (2016) Adaptive loss of color polymorphism and character displacements in sympatric Mnais damselflies. Evol Ecol 30:811–824.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10682-015-9778-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tsubaki Y, Samejima Y (2016) Hot males live fast and die young: habitat segregation, reproductive output, and lifespan of sympatric Mnais damselflies. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 70:725–732.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-016-2095-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Tsubaki Y, Hooper RE, SivaJothy MT (1997) Differences in adult and reproductive lifespan in the two male forms of Mnais pruinosa costalis Selys (Odonata: Calopterygidae). Res Popul Ecol 39:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tynkkynen K, Rantala MJ, Suhonen J (2004) Interspecific aggression and character displacement in the damselfly Calopteryx splendens. J Evol Biol 17:759–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tynkkynen K, Kotiaho JS, Luojumaki M, Suhonen J (2005) Interspecific aggression causes negative selection on sexual characters. Evolution 59:1838–1843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tynkkynen K, Kotiaho JS, Luojumaki M, Suhonen J (2006) Interspecific territoriality in Calopteryx damselflies: the role of secondary sexual characters. Anim Behav 71:299–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Vieira MC, Peixoto PEC (2013) Winners and losers: a meta-analysis of functional determinants of fighting ability in arthropod contests. Funct Ecol 27:305–313.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Vilela DS, Tosta TAA, Rodrigues RR et al (2017) Colours of war: visual signals may influence the outcome of territorial contests in the tiger damselfly, Tigriagrion aurantinigrum. Biol J Linn Soc 121:786–795.  https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/blx024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Waage JK (1979) Reproductive character displacement in Calopteryx (Odonata, Calopterygidae). Evolution 33:104–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Waage JK (1988) Confusion over residency and the escalation of damselfly territorial disputes. Anim Behav 36:586–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Weichsel JI (1987) The life history and behavior of Hetaerina americana (Fabricus) (Odonata: Calopterygidae). University of MichiganGoogle Scholar
  116. Wilcox RS, Ruckdeschel T (1982) Food threshold territoriality in a water strider (Gerris remigis). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 11:85–90.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00300096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Williams DD (1987) A laboratory study of predator-prey interactions of stoneflies and mayflies. Freshw Biol 17:471–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wilson DS, Leighton M, Leighton DR (1978) Interference competition in a tropical ripple bug (Hemiptera: Veliidae). Biotropica 10:302–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zahavi A (1977) Reliability in communication and the evolution of altruism. In: Stonehouse B, Perrins CM (eds) Evolutionary ecology. Macmillan, London, pp 253–259Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations