Liver Cancer

  • Thayse Gardini Alvarenga
  • Pamela Carvalho Muniz
  • Hakaru Tadokoro
  • Ramon Andrade De MelloEmail author
  • Nora Manoukian Forones


Liver cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in the world and the second cause of death which translates its high virulence (Cancer W-IAoRo: GLOBALCAN 2012: estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012. IARC, Lyon, 2012). This cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in men (554.000 cases, 7, 5% of the total) and the ninth in women (228.000 cases, 3, 4%). The estimated 782.000 cases worldwide in 2012 that occur 83% in developed regions (50% in China alone).


Liver cancer Targeted therapies Sorafenib 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thayse Gardini Alvarenga
    • 1
  • Pamela Carvalho Muniz
    • 2
  • Hakaru Tadokoro
    • 3
  • Ramon Andrade De Mello
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  • Nora Manoukian Forones
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Medical Oncology, Escola Paulista de MedicinaUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Medical OncologyUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Division of Medical Oncology, Escola Paulista de MedicinaFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Division of Medical OncologyFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) & Hospital Israelita Albert EinsteinSão PauloBrazil
  5. 5.Department of Biomedical Sciences and MedicineUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  6. 6.Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil

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