Colon Cancer

  • Pamela Carvalho Muniz
  • Hakaru Tadokoro
  • Ramon Andrade De MelloEmail author
  • Nora Manoukian Forones


Colon cancer ranks worldwide the second place in prevalence among men (10%) and third place among women (9.2%) (GLOBALCAN 2012: estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012, 2012). Although well-established diagnostic methods are indicated for the early diagnosis of the disease, the access and adherence to these screening programs is a global problem. The knowledge of its etiology, molecular changes and pathophysiology will introduce new diagnostic methods with better population reach and new treatments based on specific targets can transform the history of colorectal cancer. This chapter aims to discuss general aspects of colon cancer, its etiology, diagnostic methods and therapeutic possibilities according to its staging.


Colon cancer Immunotherapy MSI 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pamela Carvalho Muniz
    • 1
  • Hakaru Tadokoro
    • 2
  • Ramon Andrade De Mello
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Nora Manoukian Forones
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologySão Paulo University Hospital, Federal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Division of Medical Oncology, Escola Paulista de MedicinaFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Division of Medical OncologyFederal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) & Hospital Israelita Albert EinsteinSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical Sciences and MedicineUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  5. 5.Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP)São PauloBrazil

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