Advertisement

Between Street and Shelter: Seclusion, Exclusion, and the Neutralization of Poverty

  • Chris HerringEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

On any given night, hundreds of thousands of Americans find themselves without a home and residing either outside on the streets or inside in a shelter. This chapter examines the dynamic connection between these two primary spaces of homeless seclusion in the US metropolis through a case study of San Francisco. The chapter draws on an enactive ethnography living alongside those on the streets and in shelters, and an ethnography of the bureaucratic field. The chapter builds on and extends Wacquant’s underutilized conception of socio-spatial seclusion (2010) to elaborate how state regulations of physical space (shelter/street) work in consort to (re)produce distinctions in social space (deserving/undeserving) that both fuels inequality from below and displaces the role of the state.

References

  1. Agier, M. (2011). Managing the undesirables. Polity.Google Scholar
  2. Arapoglou, V. P., & Gounis, K. (2017). Contested landscapes of poverty and homelessness in Southern Europe: Reflections from Athens. Springer.Google Scholar
  3. ASR (Applied Survey Research). (2017). San Francisco homeless point in time count.Google Scholar
  4. Auyero, J. (2012). Patients of the state: The politics of waiting in Argentina. Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Beckett, K., & Herbert, S. (2009). Banished: The new social control in urban America. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bittner, E. (1967). The police on skid-row: A study of peace keeping. American Sociological Review, 32(5), 699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourdieu, P. (1994). Rethinking the state: Genesis and structure of the bureaucratic field. Sociological Theory, 12(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  8. Bourgois, P., & Schonberg, J. (2009). Righteous dopefiend. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  9. BLA (Budget and Legislative Analyst of the City and County of San Francisco). (2016). Homelessness and the cost of quality of life laws. San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  10. Cloke, P. J., May, J., & Johnsen, S. (2011). Swept up lives?: Re-envisioning the homeless city. John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  11. Davis, M. (2006). City of quartz: Excavating the future in Los Angeles. Verso.Google Scholar
  12. Desjarlais, R. R. (1997). Shelter blues: Sanity and selfhood among the homeless. University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  13. Desmond, M. (2014). Relational ethnography. Theory and Society, 43(5), 547–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DeVerteuil, G. (2006). The local state and homeless shelters: Beyond revanchism? Cities, 23(2), 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. DeVerteuil, G., May, J., & von Mahs, J. (2009). Complexity not collapse: Recasting the geographies of homelessness in a ‘punitive’ age. Progress in Human Geography, 33(5), 646–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dubois, V. (2016). The bureaucrat and the poor: Encounters in French welfare offices. Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Duneier, M. (1999). Sidewalk. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  18. Fernandez Evangelista, G. (2013). Mean streets: A report on the criminalisation of homelessness in Europe. FEANTSA, Housing Rights Watch, and Fondation Abbé Pierre.Google Scholar
  19. Flint, J. (2018). Encounters with the centaur state: Advanced urban marginality and the practices and ethics of welfare sanctions regimes. Urban Studies, 56(1), 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goetz, E. G. (2013). New Deal Ruins: Race, Economic Justice, and Public Housing Policy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gounis, K. (1992). The manufacture of dependency: Shelterization revisited. New England Journal of Public Policy, 8(1), 60.Google Scholar
  22. Gowan, T. (2010). Hobos, hustlers, and backsliders: Homeless in San Francisco. University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  23. Herring, C. (forthcoming). Complaint oriented policing: The regulation of homelessness in public space.Google Scholar
  24. Herring, C. (2014). The new logics of homeless seclusion: Homeless encampments in America’s west coast cities. City & Community, 13(4), 285–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Herring, C. (2015). Evicting the evicted: The spurious rationales of “homeless sweeps”. Progressive Planning, 205(Fall), 29–32.Google Scholar
  26. Herring, C., Yarbrough, D., & Marie Alatorre, L. (2019). Pervasive penality: How the criminalization of poverty perpetuates homelessness. Social Problems.Google Scholar
  27. Hopper, K. (2003). Reckoning with homelessness. Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  28. HUD (US Department of Housing and Urban Development). (2017). Annual homelessness assessment report. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  29. Johnsen, S., & Fitzpatrick, S. (2010). Revanchist sanitisation or coercive care? The use of enforcement to combat begging, street drinking and rough sleeping in England. Urban Studies, 47(8), 1703–1723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Katz, M. B. (1997). Improving poor people: The welfare state, the “underclass,” and urban schools as history. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Lancione, M. (2014). Assemblages of care and the analysis of public policies on homelessness in Turin, Italy. City, 18(1), 25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Levenson, Z. (2017). Precarious welfare states: Urban struggles over housing delivery in post-apartheid South Africa. International Sociology, 32(4), 474–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lipsky, M. (2010). Street-level bureaucracy, 30th Ann. Ed.: Dilemmas of the individual in public service. Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  34. Lyon-Callo, V. (2008). Inequality, poverty, and neoliberal governance: Activist ethnography in the homeless sheltering industry. University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  35. Marcuse, P. (1988). Neutralizing homelessness. Socialist Review, 18(1), 69–96.Google Scholar
  36. Marcuse, P. (1996). Space and race in the post-fordist city: The outcast ghetto and advanced homelessness in the United States today. In Urban poverty and the underclass: A reader (pp. 176–216). Oxford: Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mathieu, A. (1993). The medicalization of homelessness and the theater of repression. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 7(2), 170–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mitchell, D. (2003). The right to the city: Social justice and the fight for public space. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  39. NAEH (National Alliance to End Homelessness). (2016). Homelessness: A state of emergency. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  40. NLCHP (National Law Centre on Homelessness and Poverty). (2016). Housekeys not handcuffs. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  41. Ortiz, J., Dick, M., & Rankin, S. (2015). The wrong side of history: A comparison of modern and historical criminalization laws. University of Seattle Homeless Law Advocacy Project.Google Scholar
  42. Picker, G., & Pasquetti, S. (2015). Durable camps: The state, the urban, the everyday: Introduction. Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  43. Roy, A. (2003). Paradigms of propertied citizenship: Transnational techniques of analysis. Urban Affairs Review, 38(4), 463–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sam Dodge. (2015). Navigation centres. Powerpoint.Google Scholar
  45. Seim, J. (2017). The ambulance: Toward a labor theory of poverty governance. American Sociological Review, 82(3), 451–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Smith, N. (1996). The new urban frontier: Gentrification and the revanchist city. Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Snow, D. A., & Anderson, L. (1993). Down on their luck: A study of homeless street people. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  48. Sparks, T. (2017a). Citizens without property: Informality and political agency in a Seattle, Washington homeless encampment. Environment and Planning A, 49(1), 86–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sparks, T. (2017b). Neutralizing homelessness, 2015: Tent cities and ten year plans. Urban Geography, 38(3), 348–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stuart, F. (2015). On the streets, under arrest: Policing homelessness in the 21st century. Sociology Compass, 9(11), 940–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stuart, F. (2016). Down, out, and under arrest: Policing and everyday life in Skid Row. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  52. Takahashi, L. M., & Dear, M. J. (1997). The changing dynamics of community opposition to human service facilities. Journal of the American Planning Association, 63(1), 79–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. US Conference of Mayors. (2016). The US conference of mayors’ report on hunger and homelessness. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  54. Von Mahs, J. (2013). Down and out in Los Angeles and Berlin: The sociospatial exclusion of homeless people. Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Wacquant, L. (2001). Deadly symbiosis: When ghetto and prison meet and mesh. Punishment & Society, 3(1), 95–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wacquant, L. (2008). Urban outcasts: A comparative sociology of advanced marginality. Polity.Google Scholar
  57. Wacquant, L. (2009). Punishing the poor: The neoliberal government of social insecurity. Duke University Press Books.Google Scholar
  58. Wacquant, L. (2010a). Crafting the neoliberal State: Workfare, prisonfare, and social insecurity. Sociological Forum, 25(2), 197–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wacquant, L. (2010b). Designing urban seclusion in the twenty-first century: The 2009 Roth-Symonds lecture. Perspecta, 43, 164–175.Google Scholar
  60. Wacquant, L. (2015). For a sociology of flesh and blood. Qualitative Sociology, 38(1), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Willse, C. (2015). The value of homelessness. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wolch, J. R., & Dear, M. J. (1993). Malign neglect: Homelessness in an American city (1st ed.). Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations