Advertisement

Introduction

  • Siegfried O. Wolf
Chapter
Part of the Contemporary South Asian Studies book series (CSAS)

Abstract

This chapter gives a brief introduction of the chosen topic—the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as part of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Starting from the notion that Economic Corridors (ECs) are able to play a key role in integrating economies, it outlines the research structure, the author’s arguments and the methods used. It’s noted that South Asia still largely lacks connectivity at both national and cross-national levels—in fact South Asia is one of the least economically integrated regions in the world. In order to address this issue, it will be highlighted that ECs can basically serve as a means to overcome both national and regional connectivity gaps, enhance economic growth within participating countries, and boost regional collaboration and integration.

Bibliography

  1. Ahmad, D. (2018a). The China Pakistan Economic Corridor: Review and analysis. In BIPP (Ed.), The state of the economy. China Pakistan Economic Corridor. Review and analysis (pp. 50–63). Lahore: Javed Burki Institute of Public Policy (BIPP).Google Scholar
  2. Allen-Ebrahimian, B. (2015, April 22). China loves Pakistan … but most Chinese don’t. Foreign Policy (FP).Google Scholar
  3. Ashraf, S. (2015b, April 9). China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (ISAS Brief, No. 364). Singapore: Institute of South Asian Studies National University of Singapore.Google Scholar
  4. Blood, P. R. (1995). Pakistan: A country study. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.Google Scholar
  5. Brunner, H.-P. (2013). What is Economic Corridor development and what can it achieve in Asia’s Subregions? (ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration, No. 117). Manila: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  6. BTI Pakistan. (2016). BTI 2016 | Pakistan Country Report. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI).Google Scholar
  7. Business Recorder. (2017c, October 11). Pakistan’s failure in trade with China. Accessed May 10, 2019, from https://www.brecorder.com/2017/10/11/374174/pakistans-failure-in-trade-with-china/
  8. Cheema, P. I. (1986). Significance of Pakistan-China agreement of 1963. Pakistan Horizon, 39(4), 41–52.Google Scholar
  9. Cloughley, B. (2006). A history of the Pakistan army. Wars and insurrections. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Dawn. (2017e, March 27). Almond export can yield billions of rupees for Gilgit-Baltistan.Google Scholar
  11. De, P., & Iyengar, K. (2014). Making the case for Economic Corridors in South Asia. In P. De & K. Iyengar (Eds.), Developing Economic Corridors in South Asia (pp. 1–14). Manila: Asian Development Bank (ADB).Google Scholar
  12. EC. (2018a, September 19). Joint Communication to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee of the Regions and the European Investment Bank. Connecting Europe and Asia – Building blocks for an EU Strategy. Brussels: High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/European Commission (EC).Google Scholar
  13. Economist. (2015b, April 20). China and Pakistan. Corridor of power.Google Scholar
  14. Esteban, M. (2016). The China-Pakistan corridor: A transit, economic or development corridor? ARI 53/2016–5/7/2016. Madrid: Elcano Royal Institute.Google Scholar
  15. Ghiasy, R., & Zhou, J. (2017). The Silk Road economic Belt. Considering security implications and EU–China cooperation prospects. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (FES), Germany & Stockholm International Peace Institute (SIPRI), Sweden. Accessed February 7, 2019, from https://www.sipri.org/publications/2017/other-publications/silk-road-economic-belt
  16. Ghumman, M. (2018, July 14). CPEC projects: China adopts ‘go slow’ policy. Business Recorder.Google Scholar
  17. Haider, K., & Dilawar, I. (2017, June 28). Growing trade imbalance leads Pakistan to seek China concessions. Bloomberg Politics.Google Scholar
  18. Hillmann, J. (2018a, September 4). China’s Belt and Road is full of holes. CSIS Briefs. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS).Google Scholar
  19. Hillmann, J. (2018b, April 3). How big is China’s Belt and Road? CSIS Briefs. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS).Google Scholar
  20. Husain, K. (2017b, June 21). Exclusive: CPEC master plan revealed. Details from original documents laying out the CPEC long term plan are publicly disclosed for the first time. Dawn.Google Scholar
  21. Husain, I. (2018, June 6). Business? Yes. As usual? No! Text of speech at CPEC 2018 Summit, 23 & 24 April 2018, CPEC 2018: Supplement, reprinted in Dawn.Google Scholar
  22. Iqbal, K. (2015b, April 27). Challenges to China-Pakistan cooperation. The Nation.Google Scholar
  23. Jain, B. M. (2017). China’s soft power diplomacy in South Asia: Myth or reality? London: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  24. Jing, Y. (2018, May 28). Pakistan to be the new BRI benchmark. Text of speech at CPEC 2018 Summit, 23 & 24 April 2018, CPEC 2018: Supplement, reprinted in Dawn.Google Scholar
  25. Joscelyn, T. (2008, October 9). Evaluating the Uighur threat. The Long War Journal. Accessed February 12, 2019, from http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2008/10/evaluating_the_uighu.php
  26. Kamal, J., & Malik, M. H. (2017, October). Dynamics of Pakistan’s trade balance with China. SBP Staff Notes 04/17. Karachi: State Bank of Pakistan (SBP). Accessed February 12, 2019, from http://www.sbp.org.pk/publications/staff-notes/Pak-China-trade-balance.pdf
  27. Karim, T. A. (2017). Connecting South Asia with Southeast Asia: A reality check. In K. Yhome & R. R. Chaturvedy (Eds.), Emerging trans-regional corridors: South and South East Asia (pp. 8–15). New Delhi: Observer Research Foundation (ORF).Google Scholar
  28. Kayani, U. J., & Shah, A. S. (2014). Non tariff barriers and Pakistan regional trade. A legal and economic analysis of non-tariff barriers in Pakistan, India, China and Sri Lanka (ICG Working Paper). Pakistan: Lahore University of Management Sciences, International Growth Centre (ICG). Accessed February 12, 2019, from https://www.theigc.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Kayani-Shah-2014-Working-Paper.pdf
  29. Khan, M. (2015b, May 28). CPEC: We will succeed. Pakistan Observer.Google Scholar
  30. Kuroda, H., Kawai, M., & Nangia, R. (2007). Infrastructure and regional cooperation. In F. Bourguignon & B. Pleskovic (Eds.), Rethinking infrastructure for development (pp. 235–260). Washington, DC: World Bank Group.Google Scholar
  31. Ladley, E. (2002). Nixon’s China trip. New York: Writer’s Club.Google Scholar
  32. Lamb, A. (1964). The Sino-Pakistani boundary agreement of 2 March 1963. Australian Outlook, 18(3), 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lenczowski, G. (1979). The arc of crisis: Its central sector. Foreign Affairs (Spring Issue).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. LTP. (2017). Long term plan for China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (2017–2030) [LTP]. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Planning, Development and Reform, Islamabad & People’s Republic of China, National Development & Reform Commission, Beijing. Accessed February 13, 2019, from http://pc.gov.pk/uploads/cpec/LTP.pdf
  35. Mascarenhas, A. (1986). Bangladesh: A legacy of blood. London: Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
  36. Mazari, S. M. (2003). The Kargil conflict 1999. Separating fact from fiction. Islamabad: Institute of Strategic Studies.Google Scholar
  37. McCormick, B. L., Shaozhi, S., & Xiaoming, X. (1992, Summer). The 1989 democracy movement: A review of the prospects for civil society in China. Pacific Affairs, 65(2), 182–202.Google Scholar
  38. Mitra, S. K., Wolf, S. O., & Schöttli, J. (2006). A political and economic dictionary of South Asia. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  39. Muhammad, P. (2016, June 26). Pakistan has failed when it comes to trade with China. The Express Tribune.Google Scholar
  40. Mustafa, A., Qayyum, D. A., & Noor-e-Hera. (2017). Impact of technical barriers to trade on trade between China and Pakistan. Paper presented at the 33rd AGM and Conference, Redefining Prosperity Paths in Changing Global Economy; Opportunities and Challenges for Pakistan, Pakistan Society of Development Economists (PDE). Accessed February 13, 2019, from http://pide.org.pk/psde/pdf/AGM32/papers/Impact%20of%20Technical%20Barriers%20to%20Trade%20on%20Trade%20between%20China%20and%20Pakistan.pdf
  41. Muzaffar, Z. (2015, June 18). Interview: Javed Jabbar. The Diplomat.Google Scholar
  42. NDRC. (2015, March 28). Vision and actions on jointly building Silk Road economic Belt and 21st-century Maritime Silk Road. National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Ministry of Commerce Government of Peoples Republic of China. Accessed February 13, 2019, from http://en.ndrc.gov.cn/newsrelease/201503/t20150330_669367.html
  43. Pasha, H. (2017, July 24). What has caused Pakistan’s alarming trade deficit? Herald.Google Scholar
  44. PRC. (2000, February 21). White Paper – The One-China principle and the Taiwan issue. People’s Republic of China (PRC). Accessed February 13, 2019, from http://www.china-embassy.org/eng/zt/twwt/White%20Papers/t36705.htm
  45. Rafiq, A. (2017). The China Pakistan Economic Corridor. Barriers and impacts (USIP Peaceworks No. 135). United States Institute of Peace (USIP).Google Scholar
  46. Rafiq, A. (2018, May 4). CPEC: A paucity of planning by Pakistan. Blog. Global Village Space. Accessed February 13, 2019, from https://www.globalvillagespace.com/cpec-a-paucity-of-planning-by-pakistan/
  47. Rahman, F.-U. (2007). Pakistan’s evolving relations with China, Russia, and Central Asia. In: A. Iwashita (Ed.), Russia and its neighbors in crisis, Slavic Eurasian Research Center (pp. 211–229) Hokkaido: Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University. Accessed February 13, 2019, from http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/coe21/publish/no16_1_ses/11_rahman.pdf
  48. Ramachandran, S. (2016a, November 16). CPEC takes a step forward as violence surges in Balochistan. Asia Times.Google Scholar
  49. Rehman, I. (2013, March 7). Arc of crisis 2.0? National Interest. Accessed February 13, 2019, from http://nationalinterest.org/commentary/arc-crisis-20-8194
  50. Rizvi, H. A. (2015a, May 28). The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: Regional cooperation and socio-economic development, 34, 35, Winter 2014/Spring 2015, No. 4 and 1. Islamabad: Institute of Strategic Studies (ISSI). Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://issi.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Hasan-Askari-Rizvi_3435_SS_41_20142015.pdf
  51. Shams, S. (2017c, February 8). Why is China ‘protecting’ the Pakistan-based Jaish-e-Mohammad militant group? Deutsche Welle.Google Scholar
  52. Siddiqa, A. (2009). Military Inc. Inside Pakistan’s military economy. Karachi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Small, A. (2015). The China-Pakistan axis: Asia’s new geopolitics. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Small, A. (2017). First movement: Pakistan and the Belt and Road initiative. Asia Policy, 24, 80–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Staiger, R. W. (2012). Non-tariff measures and the WTO (Staff Working Paper ERSD-201201). Economic Research and Statistics Division. World Trade Organisation.Google Scholar
  56. Subramanian, N. (2017, May 23), A short history of the relationship: China-Pakistan, bhai-bhai, The Indian Express.Google Scholar
  57. Tharoor, I. (2015, April 21). What China’s and Pakistan’s special friendship means. The Washington Post.Google Scholar
  58. TI. (2018). Corruption perception index Pakistan 2017. Transparency International (TI): Islamabad.Google Scholar
  59. Toor, M. R. (2017). An assessment of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: Threats, prospects and implications. International Affairs and Global Strategy, 56. Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/IAGS/article/viewFile/37393/38474
  60. Vandewalle, L. (2015). Pakistan and China: ‘Iron brothers’ forever? Brussels: Directorate General for External Policies, Policy Department. Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2015/549052/EXPO_IDA(2015)549052_EN.pdf
  61. Vickerman, R. (2002). Restructuring of transportation networks. In G. Atalik & M. M. Fischer (Eds.), Regional development reconsidered (pp. 148–158). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wolf, S. O. (2012b, April 27). India in Afghanistan – Looking for the right approach. The Independent (Bangladesh). Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://crossasia-repository.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/2808/
  63. Wolf, S. O. (2013g, April 1). Civilian control and democratic transition: Pakistan’s unequal equation (PSRU Research Report No. 2). Durham: Durham University: Pakistan Security Research Unit (PSRU). Accessed February 14, 2019, from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2839458
  64. Wolf, S. O. (2015a, July 21). It’s not only about illegal migration & international law: The Uighur Conundrum. E-International Relations. Accessed February 14, 2019, from http://www.e-ir.info/2015/07/21/its-not-only-about-illegal-migration-international-law-the-uighur-conundrum/
  65. Wolf, S. O. (2016e, June 28). The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor: An assessment of its feasibility and impact on regional cooperation (SADF Working Paper No. 1). Brussels: South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF).Google Scholar
  66. Wolf, S. O. (2017a, September 27). Genocide, exodus and exploitation for jihad: The urgent need to address the Rohingya crisis (SADF Working Paper, No. 6). Brussels: South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF).Google Scholar
  67. Wolf, S. O. (2017f, January 6). Double standards? Understanding China’s diplomatic support for Pakistan’s Cross-Border Terrorists (SADF Comment, No. 68). Brussels: South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF).Google Scholar
  68. Wolf, S. O., & Casaca, P. (2014). Introduction. In S. O. Wolf et al. (Eds.), The merits of regional cooperation. The case of South Asia (pp. 1–7). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wolf, C. Jr., Wang, X., Warner, E. (2013). China’s foreign aid and government-sponsored investment activities scale, content, destinations, and implications. Santa Monica: RAND: National Defence Research Institute.Google Scholar
  70. World Bank. (2018c, March 29). Belt and Road initiative (World Bank Brief). Washington, DC: World Bank Group.Google Scholar
  71. Zingel, W.-P. (2015). China’s Pakistan option: Economic and social implications of an ‘all-weather relationship’. IIC Quarterly, 42, 2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siegfried O. Wolf
    • 1
  1. 1.South Asia Democratic Forum (SADF)BrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations