Averting Intragenerational and Intergenerational Religious Bullying in Schools and in Society through Religious Literacy: Québec as a Case Study
Bullying occurs around the world, but little is known about religious bullying—bullying that occurs based on one’s religious or non-religious identity. This chapter discusses the potential of an intragenerational and intergenerational pattern in religious bullying, a possibility in all forms of bullying, and how it may be addressed despite the societal boundaries and institutional regulations that exist in a society. As a short-term solution, anti-bullying programmes respond to direct instances of bullying, but studies show that a number of them are counter-productive. As an alternative means to prevent and address religious bullying, this chapter considers Québec’s institutionalised Ethics and Religious Culture programme as a potentially long-term solution while raising the constraints posed by both Québec’s conception of interculturalism and the course curriculum itself.
Keywords(Religious) bullying Religious literacy Québec, Canada Interculturalism School(ing) Religion and society
- Beatbullying. (2008). Interfaith report. Reference from a downloaded copy that is no longer available online, as the organisation closed in 2014.Google Scholar
- Balaji, M., Khanna, R., Dinakar, A., Voruganti, H., & Pallod, K. (2016). Classroom subjected: Bullying and bias against Hindu students in American schools. Hindu American Foundation. https://www.hafsite.org/sites/default/files/HAFN_16_008-BullyingReport_final_RGB_r2.pdf. Accessed 28 June 2018.
- Benavides, A. D., Alhumaid, S. M., & Quainoo, E. D. (2011). Counterterrorism and perspectives on cultural competency and representation. In S. Ekici (Ed.), Counter terrorism in diverse communities (pp. 197–216). Amsterdam: IOS Press.Google Scholar
- Bhui, K., Dinos, S., & Jones, E. (2012). Psychological process and pathways to radicalization. Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense, doi: https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-2526.S5-003.
- Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Chan, A. W. Y. (2012). A place for religious discussion to create and strengthen an inclusive public school classroom. Unpublished manuscript. Toronto, Ontario: Ontario Institute of Studies in Education, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
- Council of American-Islamic Relations. (2015). MISLABELED: The impact of school bullying and discrimination on California Muslim students. Council of American-Islamic Relations, California. https://agi.memberclicks.net/assets/docs/Resource-docs/cair-ca-2015-bullying-report-web.pdf. Accessed 28 June 2018.
- Craig, W., Harel-Fisch, Y., Fogel-Grinvald, H., Dostaler, S., Hetland, J., Simons-Morton, B., Molcho, M., Gaspar de Mato, M., Overpeck, M., Due, P., Pickett, W., the HBSC Violence and Injuries Prevention Focus Group, & the HBSC Bullying Writing Group. (2009). A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries. International Journal of Public Health, 54, 216–224.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Craig, W., & Edge, H. M. (2012). The health of Canada’s young people: A mental health focus. Public Health Agency of Canada. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hp-ps/dca-dea/publications/hbsc-mental-mentale/bullying-intimidation-eng.php. Accessed 28 June 2018.Google Scholar
- Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2003). Perceptions of the frequency and importance of social support by students classified as victims, bullies, and bully/victims in an urban middle school. Social Psychology Review, 32, 471–489.Google Scholar
- EMSB says secular charter endorses bullying. (2014). http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/emsb-says-secular-charter-endorses-bullying-1.2489840. Accessed 28 June 2018.
- Fraser, J. W. (1999). Between church and state: Religion and public education in a multicultural America. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
- Ghosh, R., & Galczynski, M. (2014). Redefining multicultural education. Third edition. Inclusion and the right to be different. Toronto: Canadian Scholars.Google Scholar
- Gojer, J. (2010). Fahim Ahmad’s psychiatric evaluation. Unpublished clinical evaluation. Toronto: The Manasa Clinic.Google Scholar
- Harris Interactive. (2005). From teasing to torment: School climate in America. A survey of students and teachers. Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN). http://www.glsen.org/download/file/MzMzMg. Accessed 29 June 2018.
- Hull, J. M. (n.d.). Three models of religious education. The International Association for Religious Freedom. https://www.iarf.net/REBooklet/Hull.htm. Accessed 28 May 2019.
- Jackson, R. (1997). Religious education: An interpretive approach. London: Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
- Jackson, R. (2015). Signposts: Policy and practice for teaching about religions and non-religious world views in intercultural education. Strasburg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
- Jedwab, J. (n.d.). Religion in Canada: Is sentiment about faith levelling off across the country? Association for Canadian Studies. https://acs-aec.ca/pdf/polls/Religion%20in%20Canada%20Are%20We%20Losing%20Faith.pptx. Accessed 28 June 2018.
- Jimerson, S. R., Swearer, S. M., & Espelage, D. L. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kirman, J. (2004). Using the theme of bullying to teach about human rights in the social studies. McGill Journal of Education, 39(3), 327–341.Google Scholar
- Kymlicka, W. (2010). The current state of multiculturalism in Canada and research themes on Canadian multiculturalism, 2008–2010. Ottawa: Citizenship and Immigration Canada.Google Scholar
- Linden, A., & Klandermans, B. (2006). Stigmatization and repression of extreme-right activism in the Netherlands. Mobilization: An International Quarterly, 11(2), 213–228.Google Scholar
- MÉES. (2016). The ethics and religious culture program. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec. http://www.education.gouv.qc.ca/en/contenus-communs/parents-and-guardians/ethics-and-religious-culture-program/. Accessed 28 June 2018.Google Scholar
- Mitchell, P. J. (2012). The limits of anti-bullying legislation. Institute of Marriage and Family Canada. http://www.imfcanada.org/sites/default/files/IMFCPublicationMay2012FINAL-WEB.pdf. Accessed 28 June 2018.Google Scholar
- Moore, D. L. (2006). Overcoming religious illiteracy: A cultural studies approach. World History Connected, 4(1), 43 paragraphs. http://worldhistoryconnected.press.illinois.edu/4.1/moore.html. Accessed 28 June 2018.
- Morris, R. (2011). Québec’s Ethics and Religious Culture program: Controversy, content, and orientations. Canadian Issues/Thèmes Canadiens (special issue), 55–60. http://www.acs-aec.ca/pdf/pubs/CanadianIssues_diversity-education-for-liberation-realities-possibilities-problems_pdf.pdf. Accessed 28 June 2018.Google Scholar
- Nansel, T. R., Craig, W., Overpeck, M. D., Saluja, G., Ruan, J., & The Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Bullying Analyses Working Group. (2004). Cross-national consistency in the relationship between bullying behaviors and psychosocial adjustment. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 158, 730–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nickerson, A. B., Mele, D., & Osborne-Oliver, K. M. (2010). Parent-child relationships and bullying. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 187–198). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Olweus, D. (2010). Understanding and researching bullying: Some critical issues. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 9–34). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Peritz, I., & Perreaux, L. (2013). Québec reveals religious symbols to be banned from public sector. The Globe and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/quebec-unveils-plan-for-controversial-charter-of-values/article14214307/. Accessed 28 June 2018.Google Scholar
- Perreaux, L., & Stevenson, V. (2015). What drove seven young Québeckers into the arms of the Islamic State? The Globe and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/what-drove-seven-young-Québeckers-into-the-arms-of-the-islamic-state/article23569474/. Accessed 28 June 2018.Google Scholar
- Pew Research Center. (2014). Religious hostilities reach six year high. http://www.pewforum.org/files/2014/01/RestrictionsV-full-report.pdf. Accessed 28 June 2018.Google Scholar
- Pregnant Muslim woman attacked by Montréal teens, police say. (2015). http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/Montréal/Montréal-police-muslim-woman-1.3253668. Accessed 28 June 2018.
- PREVNet. (n.d.) Facts and solutions. http://www.prevnet.ca/bullying/facts-and-solutions. Accessed 28 June 2018.Google Scholar
- Prothero, S. (2007). Religious literacy: What every American needs to know—and doesn’t. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
- Roy, O. (2004). Globalized Islam: The search for a new ummah. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Sikh Coalition. (2014). ‘Go home terrorist.’ A report on bullying against Sikh American school children. http://sikhcoalition.org/documents/pdf/go-home-terrorist.pdf. Accessed 28 June 2018.
- Statistics Canada. (2013a). Québec (Code 24) (Table). National Household Survey (NHS) Profile. 2011 National Household Survey. Ottawa: Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-004-XWE.Released 11 September 2013. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E. Accessed 24 January 2016.
- Statistics Canada. (2013b). Montréal, CMA, Québec (Code 462) (Table). National Household Survey (NHS) Profile. 2011 National Household Survey. Ottawa: Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-004-XWE. Released 11 September 2013. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/prof/index.cfm?Lang=E. Accessed 24 January 2016.
- Stopbullying.gov. (n.d.). Religion and faith. http://www.stopbullying.gov/at-risk/groups/index.html. Accessed 29 June 2018.
- Taki, M. (2010). Relations among bullying, stresses, and stressors: A longitudinal and comparative survey among countries. In S. R. Jimerson, S. M. Swearer, & D. L. Espelage (Eds.), Handbook of bullying in schools: An international perspective (pp. 151–162). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Taylor, C. (1992). The Politics of recognition. In A. Gutmann (Ed.), Multiculturalism: Examining the politics of recognition (pp. 25–74). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Totten, M., & Quigley, P. (2003). Bullying, school exclusion, and literacy. Canadian Public Health Association. Human Resources Development Canada and the National Literacy Secretariat. http://www.tottenandassociates.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Totten-and-Quigley-Bullying-and-Literacy-Discussion-Paper-April-25-03.pdf. Accessed June 28, 2018.