Advertisement

The Religious Socialisation of Young Adult Muslims in Montreal (Quebec): From Learned to Reasoned Religion

  • Josiane LeGallEmail author
  • Daniela Moisa
Chapter
Part of the Boundaries of Religious Freedom: Regulating Religion in Diverse Societies book series (BOREFRRERE)

Abstract

This chapter examines the religious socialisation of young adult Muslims of Algerian, Moroccan, and Lebanese origins in Montreal, Quebec, by exploring the religious heritage that was transmitted to them and how it was received and interpreted by them. The chapter is based on ethnographic field research which explored the religious trajectories of young adult immigrant Muslims (aged 18–25 years) of different ethnic and national backgrounds. The findings demonstrate that family is often the first source of religious influence. At the same time, these young adults are active agents in the process of intergenerational transmission. To answer their questions on Islam, they rely on different sources of religious knowledge, predominantly found on the Internet, but also more traditional resources, such as the knowledge of religious leaders and members of their families.

Keywords

Muslim youth Socialisation Quebec Religion Intergenerational transmission Immigrants 

References

  1. Alba, R. (2005). Bright vs. blurred boundaries: Second-generation assimilation and exclusion in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(1), 20–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. W. (1999). The internet and Islam’s new interpreters. In D. F. Eickelman & J. W. Anderson (Eds.), New media in the Muslim world: The emerging public sphere (pp. 1–19). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Arweck, E., & Penny, G. (2015). Young people’s attitudes to religious diversity: Socialising agents and factors emerging from qualitative and quantitative data of a nation-wide project in the UK. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 36(3), 255–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bengtson, V. L. (2013). Families and faith: How religion is passed down across generations. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertaux, D., & Delcroix, C. (2009). Transmissions familiales et mobilités. Migrations société, 21(123–124), 89–95.Google Scholar
  6. Bilge, S. (2010). Alors que nous, Québécois, nos femmes sont égales à nous et nous les aimons ainsi: la patrouille des frontières au nom de l’égalité de genre dans une ‘nation’ en quête de souveraineté. Sociologie et Sociétés, 42(1), 197–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bunt, G. (2000). Virtually Islamic: Computer-mediated communication and cyber Islamic environments. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  8. Collins-Mayo, S. (2012). Youth and religion: An international perspective. Theo-Web: Zeitschrift für Religionpädagogik, 11(1), 80–94. http://theo-web.de/zeitschrift/ausgabe-2012-01/07. Accessed 22 June 2013.
  9. Durham, D. (2000). Youth and the social imagination in Africa. Anthropological Quarterly, 73(3), 113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dwyer, C., Shah, B., & Sanghera, G. (2008). From cricket lover to terror suspect: Challenging representations of young British Muslim men. Gender, Place and Culture, 15(2), 117136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Edgell, P. (2005). Religion and family: Understanding the transformation of linked institutions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Foner, N., & Dreby, J. (2010). Relations between the generations in immigrant families. Annual Review of Sociology, 37, 545–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fortin, S., LeBlanc, M-N., & Le Gall, J. (2008). Entre la oumma, l’ethnicité et la culture: le rapport à l’islam chez les musulmans francophones de Montréal. Diversité Urbaine, 8(2), 99–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gouvernement du Québec. (2015). L’immigration permanente au Québec selon les catégories d’immigration et quelques composantes. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec.Google Scholar
  15. Güngör, D., Fleischmann, F., & Phalet, K. (2011). Religious identification, beliefs, and practices among Turkish Belgian and Moroccan Belgian Muslims: Intergenerational continuity and acculturative change. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 1356–1374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haddad, Y., Smith, J., & Moore, K. (2006). Muslim women in America: The challenge of Islamic identity today. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hervieu-Léger, D. (2002). La transmission des identités religieuses. Sciences Humaines, 36, 56–59.Google Scholar
  18. Kibria, N. (2008). The new Islam and Bangladeshi youth in Britain and the US. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31(2), 243–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lefebvre, S. (2008). Cultures et spiritualités des jeunes. Montréal: Bellarmin.Google Scholar
  20. Le Gall, J. (2013). Transmission d’une identité: le travail de la mémoire familiale. In M. Jézékel & F.-R. Ouellette (Eds.), Ce que transmettre veut dire… aujourd’hui. Que voulons-nous transmettre ? De quoi vont hériter nos enfants? (pp. 245–258). Montréal: Éditions Fides.Google Scholar
  21. Levitt, P., Barnett, M., & Khalil, N. (2010). Learning to pray: Negotiating religious practice across generations and borders. In K. Fog Olwig & M. Rytter (Eds.), Mobile bodies, mobile souls (pp. 139–159). Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Maliepaard, M., & Lubbers, M. (2013). Parental religious transmission after migration: The case of Dutch Muslims. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39(3), 425–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mandaville, P. (2000). Information technology and the changing boundaries of European Islam. In F. Dassetto (Ed.), Paroles d’islam: individus, sociétés et discours dans l’islam européen contemporain (pp. 281–297). Paris: Maisonneuve-Larose.Google Scholar
  24. Mandaville, P. (2001). Transnational Muslim politics: Reimagining the umma. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Maréchal, B. (2003). The question of belonging. In B. Maréchal, F. Dassetto, J. Nielsen, & S. Allievi (Eds.), Muslims in the enlarged Europe: Religion and society (pp. 5–18). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  26. Meintel, D., & Le Gall, J. (2009). Transmission intergénérationnelle de la religion dans une société sécularisée. In A. Queniart & R. Hurtubise (Eds.), L’intergénérationnel: regards pluridisciplinaires (pp. 217–233). Paris: Presses de l‘École des hautes études en santé publique.Google Scholar
  27. Milot, M. (2008). La laïcité. Ottawa: Novalis.Google Scholar
  28. Min, P. G., & Kim, D. Y. (2005). The intergenerational transmission of religion and culture among Korean Protestant immigrants. Sociology of Religion, 66, 263–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mossière, G., & Meintel, D. (2010). Tradition and transition: Immigrant religious communities in urban contexts (Québec). In R. D. Hecht & V. F. Biondo (Eds.), Religion and everyday life and culture (pp. 481–508). Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood & Praeger.Google Scholar
  30. Nielsen, J. (2003). Transnational Islam and the integration of Islam in Europe. In S. Allievi & J. Nielsen (Eds.), Muslim networks and transnational communities in and across Europe (pp. 28–51). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  31. Park, J. Z., & Eklund, E. H. (2007). Negotiating continuity: Family and religious socialization for second-generation Asian Americans. Sociological Quarterly, 48, 93–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pinquart, M., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2004). Transmission of values from adolescents to their parents: The role of value content and authoritative parenting. Adolescence, 39(153), 3–100.Google Scholar
  33. Regnerus, M. D., Smith, C., & Smith, B. (2004). Social context in the development of adolescent religiosity. Applied Developmental Science, 8(1), 27–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Roy, O. (2004). Globalised Islam: The search for a new ummah. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
  35. Scourfield, J., Gilliat-Ray, S., Khan, A., & Otri, S. (2013). Muslim childhood: Religious nurture in a European context. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sherkat, D. E. (2003). Religious socialization: Sources of influence and influences of agency. In M. Dillon (Ed.), The handbook of the sociology of religion (pp. 151–163). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Bruinessen, M. (2010). Producing Islamic knowledge in Western Europe: Discipline, authority, and personal quest. In M. van Bruinessen & S. Allievi (Eds.), Producing Islamic knowledge: transmission and dissemination in Western Europe (pp. 1–27). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Van de Pol, J., & van Tubergen, F. (2013). Inheritance of religiosity among Muslim immigrants in a secular society. Review of Religious Research, 56, 87–106.Google Scholar
  39. Voas, D. (2003). Intermarriage and the demography of secularisation. British Journal of Sociology, 54(1), 83–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Voas, D., & Crockett, A. (2005). Religion in Britain: Neither believing nor belonging. Sociology, 39(1), 11–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Warner, S. R., & Williams, R. H. (2010). The role of families and religious institutions in transmitting religion among Christians, Muslims, and Hindus in the USA. In S. Collins-Mayo & Pink Dandelion (Eds.), Religion and Youth (pp. 159–165). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  42. Woodhead, L. (2010). Epilogue. In S. Collins-Mayo & P. Dandelion (Eds.), Religion and Youth (pp. 239–241). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversité de MontréalQCCanada
  2. 2.Department of Culture and CommunicationSudbury UniversityCanada

Personalised recommendations