The Italian Renaissance revived the classical Greek and Roman literature: philosophy, science, art, music – all were “reborn,” including Greek democracy. But, the Italian city-states were purely craft and trade cities – the citizens were not well-trained soldiers. The wealthy trade and banking oligarchs paid professional soldiers (Italians and Swiss) to defend their cities, and to repress the attempts at citizen democracy. Oligarchy typified these city-states. However, along with the incredible improvements in art, music, and science, the ideas, arguments, and institutions of Greek democracy were revived in the culture of the Renaissance.