City-State Democracy in Sumer, Syria and Canaan-Phoenicia

  • Ronald M. Glassman


Tribal democracy was carried over into the Middle Eastern City-States. The council of elders became the council of city-fathers (oligarchs whose wealth was based on commercial trade), and the warriors assembly became the citizens assembly. The war chief became the city King, with power and privileges enhanced; and the shaman became the high priests and priestesses who presided over powerful ceremonies involving fertility, death, and resurrection.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald M. Glassman
    • 1
  1. 1.NYU School of Professional StudiesStern College of Yeshiva UniversityNew YorkUSA

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