Biological and Socio-Demographic Predictors of Elderly Quality of Life Living in the Community in Baixo-Alentejo, Portugal
Objectives: To identify the biological and socio-demographic factors considered as predictors of the Quality of Life of elderly people residing in an aged and predominantly rural community in Portugal, namely the Baixo-Alentejo.
Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study, with a random sample of 351 elderly residing in the community, stratified by gender and age group, with data collection performed by health professionals in people’s homes, using the WHOQOL-BREF instrument. In addition to a brief description of the general characteristics of the sample, a linear regression model by blocks was performed, in order to investigate about the biological and sociodemographic factors considered as predictors of Quality of life.
Results: Highest percentage of women in the sample. Decreased Quality of Life in all domains as well as in the General Health Facet as age progresses. Higher average Quality of Life score obtained for the Social Relationships domain and smaller to the Physical Health one. Higher Quality of Life scores obtained for males compared to females. Education considered as one of the most significant predictors of Quality of Life, whose score increases with higher education levels.
Discussion: Regarding the biological factors, age appears to be a significant predictor in the Physical Health and Environment domains, while the gender seems to be a significant predictor in the Physical Health and Psychological ones. In respect to the sociodemographic factors, the marital status appeared to be a significant predictor in Psychological and Social Relationships domains, but education was the only factor identified as a statistically significant predictor in all domains of Quality of Life.
KeywordsAging Nursing Quality of Life
This work was supported by 4 IE project (0045-4 IE-4-P) funded by the Interreg V-A España-Portugal (POCTEP) 2014-2020 program.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethical Approval: The research ethics committee of the Unidade Local de Saúde of Baixo Alentejo (ULSBA) approved the study protocol including study design, interview questionnaires, and informed consent.
Informed Consent: Informed consent was obtained from all the 351 participants.
- 1.PORDATA Homepage. https://www.pordata.pt/en/Europe/Ageing+index-1609. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
- 2.INE Homepage “Projections of resident population in Portugal”. https://www.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpid=INE&xpgid=ine_destaques&DESTAQUESdest_boui=277695619&DESTAQUESmodo=2&xlang=en. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
- 3.INE Homepage. https://www.ine.pt/clientFiles/WkZJKJAmW3dyY43UAN6B7-aY_57871.xls. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
- 4.WHO Quality of Life Assessment Group.: What quality of life?/The WHOQOL Group. World Health Forum 17(4), 354–356 (1996)Google Scholar
- 5.Canavarro, M., et al: WHOQOL disponível para Portugal: Desenvolvimento dos instrumentos de Avaliação da Qualidade de Vida da Organização Mundial de Saúde (WHOQOL-100 e WHOQOL-BREF). In: Canavarro, M.C., Serra, A.V. (eds.) Qualidade de vida e saúde: Uma abordagem na perspectiva da Organização Mundial de Saúde, pp. 171–190. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa (2010)Google Scholar
- 7.Bonita, R., Beaglehole, R., Kjellström, T.: Epidemiologia básica, 2nd edn. Livraria Santos Editora Comércio e Importação, São Paulo (2010)Google Scholar
- 8.Lemeshow, S., et al.: Adequacy of Sample Size in Health Studies. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/41607/1/0471925179_eng.pdf. Accessed 12 Apr 2018
- 9.Canavarro, M., et al.: WHOQOL-BREF (Versão em Português de Portugal do Instrumento Abreviado de Avaliação da Qualidade de Vida da Organização Mundial de Saúde). http://www.fpce.uc.pt/saude/WHOQOL_Bref.html. Accessed 10 Mar 2016
- 10.Marôco, J.: Análise Estatística com o SPSS Statistics, 7th edn. Report Number, Lisbon (2018)Google Scholar
- 11.Pestana, M., Gageiro, J.: Análise de Dados para Ciências Sociais, 6th edn. Edições SÍLABO, Lisboa (2014)Google Scholar
- 13.Rodrigues, L., et al.: Quality of life of elderly people of the community and associated factors. J. Nurs. UFPE 11(3), 1430–1483 (2017). https://periodicos.ufpe.br/revistas/revistaenfermagem/article/view/13985. Accessed 12 Apr 2018Google Scholar
- 15.Nicodemo, D., Godoi, M.: Juventude dos anos 60–70 e envelhecimento: estudo de casos sobre. Revista Ciência em Extensão 6(1), 40–53 (2010)Google Scholar
- 18.Carta, M., et al.: Quality of life and urban/rural living: preliminary results of a community survey in Italy. Clin. Pract. Epidemiol. Mental Health CP EMH 8(2012), 169–174 (2018)Google Scholar
- 19.World Health Organization Homepage “Global Health Observatory (GHO) data”. http://www.who.int/gho/mortality_burden_disease/en/
- 20.Gameiro, G., et al.: Factores Sociais e Demográficos de variabilidade da Qualidade de Vida na população geral. In: Canavarro, M.C., Serra, A.V. (eds.) Qualidade de vida e saúde: Uma abordagem na perspectiva da Organização Mundial de Saúde, pp. 251–268. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa (2010)Google Scholar