Advertisement

The Survival of the Happiest Who (Get to) Control the Resources and Procreation

  • Oksana Yakushko
Chapter

Abstract

Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution emphasized happiness and self-control as evolutionary signs of the superior human fitness found primarily among the British upper class males. Darwin’s promotion of sexist, racist, and colonialist views of human differences underlie his scientific observations of the role of emotions among both animals and humans. This chapter also introduces alternative theories to Darwin’s “survival of the fittest in control over procreation” emphasis, including Lamarck’s contextually-focused evolutionary theory and Kropotkin’s evolutionary emphasis on “mutual aid” and interdependence. Darwinist views on human differences and emotional states are connected to the development of subsequent versions of social Darwinism, eugenics, and other forms of ideological sciences.

Keywords

Darwinist theory of emotions Social Darwinism Sciences of human differences Genetic origins of human happiness Lamarck Kropotkin Racist sciences Sexist sciences Colonialism 

References

  1. Bergman, J. (2014). The Darwin effect: It’s influence on nazism, eugenics, racism, communism, capitalism & sexism. Green Forest, AR: New Leaf Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  2. Buss, D. M. (2009). The great struggles of life: Darwin and the emergence of evolutionary psychology. American Psychologist, 64(2), 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Butler, S. (1911). Evolution, old and new: Or the theories of Buffon, Dr. Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck, as compared with that of Charles Darwin. London, UK: Kessinger Publishing.Google Scholar
  4. Carpenter, E. (1889). Civilisation: Its cause and cure. London, UK: George Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  5. Chase, A. (1980). The legacy of Malthus: The social costs of the new scientific racism. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  6. Darwin, C. (1859). On the origin of species: Or, the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: Down, Bromley, Kent.Google Scholar
  7. Darwin, C. (1889). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London: Murray.Google Scholar
  8. Darwin, C. (1898). The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter (F. Darwin, Ed., Rev. ed.). London, UK: John Murray.Google Scholar
  9. Gadjev, I. (2015). Nature and nurture: Lamarck’s legacy. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 114(1), 242–247.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bij.12439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gould, S. J. (1996). The mismeasure of man. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  11. Kropotkin, P. (1914/2012). Mutual aid: A factor of evolution. Mineola, NY: Dover.Google Scholar
  12. Lamarck, J.-B. (1809). Zoological philosophy. In J. A. Hammerton (Ed.) (2008), The world’s greatest books (Vol. 15). Science. Wm. H. Wise & Co (Online).Google Scholar
  13. Packard, A. S. (1901). Lamarck, the founder of evolution: His life and work. London, UK: Longmans, Green, and Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pinker, S. (2018). Enlightenment now: The case for reason, science, humanism, and progress. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  15. Popenoe, P., & Johnson, R. H. (1935). Applied eugenics (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Robinson, V. (1908). Comrade Kropotkin. New York, NY: The Altrurians.Google Scholar
  17. Rose, H., & Rose, S. (2010). Alas poor Darwin: Arguments against evolutionary psychology. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  18. Shields, S. A., & Bhatia, S. (2009). Darwin on race, gender, and culture. American Psychologist, 64(2), 111–119.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013502.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tucker, W. H. (1996). The science and politics of racial research. Carbondale, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  20. Watson, J. B. (1919). Psychology: From the standpoint of a behaviorist. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wright, R. (1994). The moral animal: The new science of evolutionary psychology. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oksana Yakushko
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinical PsychologyPacifica Graduate InstituteCarpinteriaUSA

Personalised recommendations