Discussion and Conclusions

  • Richard J. Estes
Part of the Social Indicators Research Series book series (SINS, volume 78)


At the beginning of this book, I stated that the world had arrived at a critical turning point, i.e., at a time in our shared histories when critical decisions needed to be made concerning the future of nations and that of the larger community of nations of which we are all part. The situation remains the same today despite five decades of progress of advancing the changing capacity of nations to meet not only the basic needs of their steadily increasing populations but their more advanced needs as well, especially in the social and economic security sectors. The situation is especially critical within nations identified in Chap.  6 and elsewhere in the book as “least developed” or “socially least developed countries” for which the basic needs of large numbers of their population go unmet, especially in response to diversity-related social conflict or warfare with neighboring states.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard J. Estes
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Social Policy & PracticeUniversity of PennsylvaniaNarberthUSA

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